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Table of Content

      
    24 April 2007
    Volume 37 Issue 2
    Articles
    A review of the research and development of biomass gasification technology in China
    DONG Yu-ping,DENG Bo,JING Yuan-zhuo,QIANG Ning,SHEN Shu-yun
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(2):  1-7 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 963 )   PDF (370KB) ( 4147 )   Save
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    Biomass energy is an important renewable energy .The use of biomass gasification technology can achieve zero CO2 emissions, saving conventional energy, meeting the requirements of sustainable development. The paper introduces process characteristics of biomass gasification and related equipments; expounds on the direction of research in the fields of biomass gasification, analysis the status of the biomass gasification technology's commercialization in China. Finally, the proposed reference is put forward.
    Space continuous path kinematic simulation of a robot based on VRML
    ZHAO Wei-hua,WANG Yong,WANG Xian-lun
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(2):  8-11 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 871 )   PDF (254KB) ( 1960 )   Save
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    A 3D robotic model was established by use of VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) and 3DMAX. By the external authoring interface (EAI) interaction between Java and VRML, the kinematics, inverse kinematics and the continuous path (CP) movement of robot were simulated. As the CP movement of robot was simulated, the 3D model of workpiece was firstly established to extract the edge information. The robot can realize space continous path movement along the workpiece contour simulating the deburring and finishing process. The method based on 6DOF robot yet can be applied in robots with any degrees of freedom.
    The architecture of the software open CNC system based on the fieldbus
    WU Hong-en,ZHANG Cheng-rui,HU Tian-liang
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(2):  12-15 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 833 )   PDF (267KB) ( 2042 )   Save
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    Fieldbus system is introduced into CNC hardware frame as data exchange interface between PC and digital servos or I/O equipments, which brings the convenient construction and expansion, the increased reliability and control precision. Combined the characteristics of fieldbus with the requirements of open CNC system, the architecture of fieldbus based open CNC system is presented. The system is divided into application layer, control layer and device layer. The functions of each layer are analyzed and described. The CNC system selects realtime serial communication bus as fieldbus interface, and Windows 2000 as software platform. CNC software is implemented by COM/DCOM. The system realizes the reusability and expansibility of the software modules and meets the requirements for the openness of CNC system.
    The finite element inverse approach for sheet metal forming based on the triangular membrane element
    TANG Yu-fang,GAO Lin
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(2):  16-20 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 708 )   PDF (277KB) ( 2056 )   Save
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    Based on the triangular membrane element model, a high precision inverse approach with finite element is deduced. The process parameters, such as friction, holding force and drawbead force are considered. The blank shape, the final distributions of stress and strain, and the thickness change corresponding to the stamping parts, can be calculated by this program. The effectiveness and accuracy of the inverse approach method in blank design are validated by a typical example of a coneshaped basin. The results show that inverse approach is an effective approach for blank design, which can be used to evaluate the sheet metal forming process quickly and to optimize the stamping technological parameters.
    The application of an abrasive water jet in cutting marble
    LU Xin-yu,HUANG Chuan-zhen,FENG Yan-xia,HOU Rong-guo,ZHU Hong-tao
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(2):  21-24 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 842 )   PDF (231KB) ( 2213 )   Save
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    The effect of some cutting parameters such as system pressure, stand off distance, traverse speed on the cutting process and cutting quality is researched by using ultra high pressure abrasive water jet machining technology. The research results show that the striation angle is increased with the enhancement of traverse speed, the reduction in pressure, and stand off distance has little effect on it. The kerf taper is approximately proportional to the traverse speed, but pressure and traverse speed have inversely effect on it. In order to obtain smaller kerf taper, lower traverse speed, larger pressure and smaller standoff distance must be selected. Higher pressure and traverse speed will produce bigger kerf width, while bigger stand off distance will make smaller kerf width.
    Design knowledge acquisition and reuse of physical modal enabled mechanical products
    HOU Xiao-lin,LV Wu,SHI Zhen,LIN Fu-yan
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(2):  25-29 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 758 )   PDF (271KB) ( 2130 )   Save
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    Traditional CAD system lacks the consideration of mechanical constraints, which can not provide designers with an efficient engineering analysis tool with the difficulty of acquiring and reusing the design knowledge. Mechanical constraints are introduced in product design process by physical model, to build a design mechanism integrating physical model with geometric model. Design history information is recorded. After data mining, the acquired design knowledge is respectively expressed by frame, QOC, etc. A design knowledge management system is built for knowledge storage, retrieval, browse and reuse. The integration of mechanical constraints with geometric model enables the accumulation, extraction and reuse of product design knowledge to become agile and natural.
    The fluctuation and impact effect of the engine time chain
    ZHANG Jing-zheng,WANG Yong,XUE Yun-na
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(2):  30-33 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 750 )   PDF (217KB) ( 2381 )   Save
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    In the process of the silent chain drive used as the timing transmission in motor, the chain always suffers from meshing impact and waving for polygon action. The meshing models of conventional and involute chain drive are built by Pro/Engineer , the highspeed dynamic simulation and analyses of the models are achieved based on ADAMS. The results show that the fluctuation range of normative chain drive is lower at medium speed, and the meshing impact force of the involute tooth profile sprocket is lower than conventional sprocket.
    Mechanism of flow pattern affected by corrugation geometric parameters in the chevron-type plate heat exchanger
    LUAN Zhi-jian,ZHANG Guan-min,ZHANG Jun-long,PAN Ji-hong
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(2):  34-37 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 691 )   PDF (244KB) ( 2328 )   Save
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    Flow fields were simulated by mathematical software between two corrugated plates in chevrontype plate heat exchanger. Simulation results confirm the changing rule of fluid's flow pattern between corrugated plates affected by corrugation inclination angel β reported by correlated literature, namely the flow pattern in channel between two plates changed from ‘crossflow’ to ‘zigzag flow’ with angel β increasing. The simulation results show that corrugation inclination angel β is not the only factor affects the flow pattern in chevrontype plate heat exchanger, but the others geometric parameters of corrugation can also affect the flow pattern. From the view of coactions of both component of flow momentum and flow resistance in direction of corrugations, the essential mechanism of the flow pattern in channel between two chevrontype corrugation plates affected by corrugation geometric parameters was discussed.
    Simulation system of proton exchange membrane fuel cells based on MATLAB
    WANG Zhen,HAN Ji-tian,WANG Ji-hao,ZHAO Wei
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(2):  38-42 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 975 )   PDF (263KB) ( 2748 )   Save
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    A steady state mathematical model of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is presented using empirical equations. Simulations and analysis are performed in MATLAB. The comparison between the modeling results and the experimental data shows good agreement. A simulation software is presented for simulating the characteristic parameters of PEMFC based on the MATLAB and Visual Basic software packages. The software is developed using the empirical models for PEMFC, SIMULINK, and Visual Basic. The simulation results show that the developed simulation software will be useful for the effective design, parameter analysis, and PEMFC demonstration.
    Application of two stage injection in catalytic converter test bench
    JI Shao-bo,CHENG Yong,TANG Yuan,WU Bo,ZHENG Xi-jiang
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(2):  43-46 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 708 )   PDF (226KB) ( 1910 )   Save
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    Test bench has high value applications, which can evaluate performance of catalytic converter quickly and effectively. During bench test process, gasoline engine cycle variation leads to speed fluctuations that will reduce control precision of A/F and the credibility of bench test. Twostage injections is adopted to reduce cycle variation. The first injection is before intake stroke , which forms homogeneous gas mixture.The other fuel is injected in intake stroke, which will enhance gas mixture concentration around spark plug during ignition. The impact of twostage injections on cycle variation is studied by comparing the speed fluctuations with different injection timing and injection proportion. The A/F characteristic of the catalytic converter is evaluated by adopting twostage injections. Result shows that speed fluctuation can be reduced by optimizing the injection parameter, and A/F control accuracy can also be enhanced.
    ——Application of an improved genetic algorithm to 3D magnetic field optimization
    LIU Zhi-zhen,CHEN Hong-yan,AN Lin
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(2):  47-51 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 1085 )   PDF (253KB) ( 2132 )   Save
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    A magnetic field optimization model for an aluminum reduction cell was built up, which was based on calculating the magnetic field by using the spline integral equation method and considering all factors affecting the current efficiency. To increase the optimization speed, an improved genetic algorithm (GA) was adopted for optimizing a 180?kA prebake anode aluminum reduction cell, and the best busbar configuration was obtained. The optimized results show that the distribution of the optimized magnetic field is more reasonable.
    Trends of EMC problem generated by FACTS equipment
    ZHANG Li,LI Qing-min,LI Qing-quan
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(2):  52-57 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 811 )   PDF (329KB) ( 2424 )   Save
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    Wide applications of large capacity FACTS equipments within nowadays HV substations will lead to large amount of broadband electromagnetic emissions, which can bring EM contamination to power grids and the environment, result in selfmalfunction or even potentially cause unaccepted response of the second electronic devices nearby.By fully analysis of EMC present issues with FACTS equipment, the principal research topics and contents for EMC studies within FACTS substations are discussed, and the specific research method and aim are also outlined in detail, which presents reference and guidance for further research in the field.
    Unit commitment with analytic expression of probability reserve by Lagrangian relaxation method
    YANG Peng-peng,HAN Xue-shan,WANG Jing,MENG Xing-xin
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(2):  58-62 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 970 )   PDF (297KB) ( 2607 )   Save
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    Because of the existing uncertainty in power system operation, it is necessary to consider the risk of unit commitment. However, the relation between unit commitment risk and unit forced outage capacity is discrete, which leads to a difficult combination with the Lagrangian relaxation method of unit commitment. Two kinds of curve fitting forms of the unit commitment risk is analysed, they are gauss function fitting and exponential function fitting. The research shows the results of Gauss function fitting is more accurate than that of the exponential function fitting. By introducing the analytic expressed unit commitment risk constraints into the unit commitment Lagrangian relaxation method, the probability reserve constrained unit commitment problem can be achieved and optimized indeed.
    System stability control of fuzzy hyperbolic model
    WANG Jin-ye,YAO Rui-ying,ZHANG Ji-liang,WANG Qi-jun
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(2):  63-66 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 667 )   PDF (220KB) ( 1975 )   Save
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    Robust stability control of a class of fuzzy hyperbolic model is investigated. The system involves timevarying delay, parameter uncertainties and possible actuators failures, which are commonly encountered and the source of instability and deteriorates performance of systems. Based on the linear matrix inequality (LMI) and LypunovKrasovskii approach, a method for designing a reliable controller is presented, which can render classedloop system asymptotic stability whether the actuators operatswell or not. A sufficient condition for the existence of such a nonlinear feedback reliable controller is obtained and the expression of desired reliable controller is given.
    Novel single-phase PFC corrector with one cycle control
    JIANG Ji-shun,ZHANG Hou-sheng,CHEN Wen-gang
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(2):  67-71 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 835 )   PDF (266KB) ( 2393 )   Save
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    A new general PWM modulator for singlephase PFC corrector with one cycle control is proposed in deducing general singlephase PFC governing equation. The PWM modulator is used in singlephase Boost topology. The singlephase Boost PFC corrector's control law is deduced. In view of popular singlephase Boost PFC corrector based on one cycle control, an improved singlephase power factor corrector is proposed. A resistance compensating network and an accumulator are added in the improved corrector, its main circuit inductance revises for the centertapped inductance. Other basic parameters are as same as the popular singlephase PFC corrector. Thus the inductance current ripple distortion is eliminated. The distortion introduced by the DCM is reduced in the certain degree. And the reliability of PFC corrector is also enhanced. Finally experimental results of improved PFC corrector are given. It shows that the improved corrector can greatly enhance the system's power factor. Its power factor can reach 0.994.
    A frequency synchronization algorithm for FMT system
    WANG Wei,ZHU Wei-hong,GAO Zhen-ming,XU Feng
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(2):  72-75 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 655 )   PDF (219KB) ( 1923 )   Save
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    A new frequency synchronization algorithm for FMT is proposed and analysed in this paper. Simulation results show that this algorithm with auxiliary data is more robust in fastfading channel and especially applicable in burst data transfer environment ex. WLAN.
    Decision aided equalizer based on filtered multitone system
    ZHANG Bing-feng,ZHU Wei-hong,GAO Zhen-ming,YANG Xing-hai
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(2):  76-79 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 728 )   PDF (220KB) ( 1926 )   Save
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    A decisionaided equalizer(DAE) scheme for filtered multitone (FMT) system is proposed. For FMT system, decisionaided equalizer could overcome the floor effect of decision feedback equalizer which is caused by the multipath channel.A new algorithm based on factor figure is also presented. This algorithm solves casualties of the decisionaided equalizer under the conditions of not improving system complexity much. The simulation results show that this equalizer has a better performance than other FMTs'.
    Preprocessing algorithms for Chinese handwriting recognition
    LI Ying,SONG Gang
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(2):  80-83 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 811 )   PDF (265KB) ( 2840 )   Save
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    A series of complete and systematic algorithms on preprocessing of handwriting image is proposed for freeformat handwritten Chinese characters . The connected character removing is carried out by combining statistical characteristic of characters width with the gauss distribution. According to the location of valley point on projecting images, a threshold value is selected as best division point resulting to the easy realization of size normalizing, character mosaicand line slope correction. The proposed methods make the whole preprocessing subsystem more stable and perfect, which lay a dependable foundation for subsequent handwriting recognition.
    A method of DOA estimation by a special array structure
    CHEN Lei,WANG Jian-ying,LV Xue,WANG Feng
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(2):  84-88 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 1358 )   PDF (253KB) ( 3015 )   Save
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    A new method of DOA estimation based on a special array geometry arrangement is presented. By adding a sensor at a specific location on uniform linear array, a group of special sensor pairs can be obtained, which can break the ULA steering vector's periodicity. The special array not only overcomes the weakness of the ambiguity of DOA estimation, but also achieves the higher resolution than ULA at the same hardware cost. A matrixblock spatial smoothed algorithm applied to the special array is proposed. The data covariance matrix is divided into some blocks according to its steering vector's periodicity, then the traditional spatial smoothed algorithm is applied to each block. After reorganizing the data covariance matrix is amended, the DOA estimation of coherent source can be achieved.
    Fiber Bragg grating seismic detector
    LIU Han-ping,LIU Han-ping,CUI Hong-liang,CHEN Bing-quan
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(2):  89-92 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 702 )   PDF (258KB) ( 2592 )   Save
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    Basic principle of seismic exploration used in petroleum exploration technology and main disadvantages of seismic detector used at present are introduced. A fiber Bragg grating seismic detector and related exploring system are designed and the corresponding field experience is accomplished. Comparisons with electromagnetic type velocity detector is put forward. The results show that fiber Bragg grating seismic detector is compatible with the seismic recorder used in oil field, is superior to the velocity detector in the aspects of sensitivity and antijamming ability.
    The security analysis of the SARI algorithm
    WANG Xiao-jie,XU Xian-peng,WANG Hua-zhen,HUANG Shuai-shuai,LI Ping
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(2):  93-96 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 675 )   PDF (234KB) ( 1710 )   Save
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    SARI algorithm is the JPEG compression tolerant multimedia content authentication technique, which was proposed by LIN and Chang et al in 2001. Its security depends on the grouping function and the threshold. The cost of eliminating the watermark is small because of its linear function and the single threshold. Theories and experimental results show its weaknesses. Some novel methods are proposed to enhance the system security by using encryption and coding techniques.
    Optimal configuration of urban water supply pump stations with variable frequency speed control
    ZHANG Cheng-hui,PEI Rong-hui,SHI Qing-sheng,MA Yong-qing
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(2):  97-102 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 741 )   PDF (296KB) ( 1728 )   Save
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    For the neglect and seldom consideration of optimal configuration in recent research, the concept of feasible pump is proposed based on the analysis of the urban watersupply operation with variable frequency speed control. Then the method of operationpoint flow rate is used to determine the range of feasible pumps. According to the engineering requirement, the optimal configuration model and its solution is given with the least total energy consumption of the pump station as the target function. The simulation results show that the optimizing configuration model is convenient and effective with high precision, which contributes much to the configuration of urban watersupply pump stations.
    Artificial immune optimization method for solving the K shortest paths search in dynamic route guidance system
    LIN Jie,YANG Li-cai,WU Xiao-qing,YE Yang
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(2):  103-108 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 756 )   PDF (301KB) ( 2083 )   Save
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    To improve the performance of the Kshortest paths search in intelligent traffic guidance systems, a novel optimal search algorithm based on artificial immune optimization system is proposed. The algorithm, applied to the urban traffic network model established by the node expanding method, expediently realizes Kshortest paths search. Due to its immune memory property, the algorithm is of the global parallelity, which indicates evidently its superiority to the genetic algorithm in the better parallel performance and avoidance of the premature phenomenon. The simulation verifies the efficiency and the practicability of the algorithm.
    Traffic flow prediction based on the wavelet neural network with genetic algorithm
    LI Jing-yu,LI Qi-qiang,HOU Hai-yan,YANG Li-cai
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(2):  109-112 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 879 )   PDF (276KB) ( 2719 )   Save
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    For the highcomplexity, timevariation and probability of urban traffic flow, its realtime and exact prediction is critical to the research of intelligent traffic system, especially for the advanced traffic management system and advanced traveler information system. Based on the character of the traffic flow prediction, a GAWNN model is given based on the wavelet neural network with genetic algorithm. The genetic algorithm of natural evolving law for the gradient descendent algorithm in Wavelet Neural Network is partly substituted to preoptimize the connection weight and the extension scale of the wavelet neural network, and later optimize the parameters along single gradient vector. This method overcomes some drawback when there exists single gradient descendent algorithm, such as local minimum and oscillation. A shorttime traffic flow prediction simulation using the GAWNN prediction model demonstrates the validity of the model.
    Observer design for a class of more general Lipschitz nonlinear systems
    JIA Xiu-qin,LIU Yun-gang
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(2):  113-120 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 791 )   PDF (269KB) ( 2572 )   Save
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    The observer design is investigated for a class of more general Lipschitz nonlinear systems. The problem of asymptotically convergent observer design is changed into solving the corresponding gain matrix. The sufficient conditions satisfied by the gain matrix are given, and the method of solving gain matrix is also presented. First, under certain detectability that the system satisfies, the sufficient conditions are presented for the asymptotic convergence of the observer error by using the singular value theory. The method of solving gain matrix is presented based on the Riccati equation. Second, when the system does not satisfy such detectability but satisfy other conditions, there is a gain matrix ensuring the asymptotic convergence of the observer error, and the sufficient conditions and the method of solving gain matrix are obtained similarly. Two simulation examples are given to demonstrate correctness of the theoretical results.
    Traffic information forecast algorithm based on the one-dimension cloud model
    YU Shao-wei,CAO Kai,ZHAO Mo
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(2):  121-126 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 782 )   PDF (270KB) ( 3449 )   Save
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    The cloud model is a mathematical representation of fuzziness and randomness in linguistic concepts. The qualitative concept is represented by expected value, entropy and hyper entropy in this model.and It can realize the transformation between the qualitative and the quantitative when the fuzziness and randomness of a linguistic concept are integrated together. Therefore, it has stronger robustness to the higher uncertain traffic information. A kind of traffic information forecast mechanism based on cloud model is proposed. This mechanism can overcome the fuzziness and the random in traffic information effectively, and can offer a novel approach for traffic information forecasting. It also shows that the predicted results are basically accord with the real ones.