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    16 June 2008
    Volume 38 Issue 3
    Articles
    Points sampling optimization strategy and performance analysis for a true 3D display system
    LI Li,YANG Zhong,XING Jian-fang,SHEN Chun-lin
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(3):  1-6 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 310 )   PDF (1047KB) ( 1826 )   Save
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    Point Sampling is an important process in true volumetric 3D display. A new method based on body-centre cubic(BCC) lattice were developed, to solve huge voxel data by using a Cartesian lattice. A sampling matrix was defined, and the closed packed of BCC lattice in volume was discussed in detail, so the sampling strategy based on BCC was given, including division of the lattice, coordinate mapping, sampling density’s computing and implement of the sampling matrix. We have chosen the Cartesian lattice as a benchmark for our comparisons. The results of experiments showed that a 30% reduced volume dataset was obtained by BCC lattice, and faster volume data preprocessing and better visual experience was apparent.
    Synchronization for a class of topologically in-equivalent three dimension chaotic systems
    HUANG Qiong
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(3):  7-9 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 252 )   PDF (781KB) ( 1025 )   Save
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    Adding a suitable scalar controller to a class of topologically inequivalent 3-dimension chaotic systems, the chaotic synchronization between those topologically inequivalent chaotic systems was shown. The method of obtaining the scalar controller from topologically inequivalent chaotic systems was established. The sufficient and realized necessary condition of chaotic synchronization was obtained.

    Design of a QEP decode counter based on VHDL
    HU Tian-liang,LI Peng,ZHANG Cheng-rui,ZUO Yi
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(3):  10-13 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 342 )   PDF (614KB) ( 2646 )   Save
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    To solve problems in decoding and counting of Quardrature Encoder Pulse (QEP), a design of a QEP decode counter was presented. VHSIC hardware description langurage (VHDL) was used as the programming language, which was implemented in a complex programmable logic device (CPLD). The whole structure of this design includes three parts: edge pickers, pulse/direction generator and up/down counter. By using this structure, the counting accuracy in a dithering case was successfully guaranteed. Altera Quartus II was used for design as well as simulation analysis. The application in Digital Readout for machine tools was given to improve the feasibility and flexibility.
    The optimum algorithm for the container loading problem with homogeneous cargoes
    XU Li-li,JI Zhong,XIA Ji-mei
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(3):  14-17 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 354 )   PDF (231KB) ( 2426 )   Save
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    An optimum algorithm with simple models and calculational methods that only applies to container loading homogeneous cargoes was provided. It can transfer three-dimensional loading into one-dimensional and two-dimensional loading to reduce the complexity of the problem. For the given space, the optimum distribution of the horizontal layers was first calculated along the height direction of the container, which can be regarded as a one-dimensional cutting problem. Then the best arrangement of boxes in each horizontal layer was given by optimization calculating, which can be regarded as a two-dimensional cutting problem. By comparison with the existing experiments, this algorithm can achieve the expected purpose of optimizing the loading process by a simple calculation.
    Durability analysis of large span road tunnels
    TAN Zhong-sheng,HUANG Cheng-zao,LIU Heng,PENG Gai-fei
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(3):  18-22 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 332 )   PDF (648KB) ( 1217 )   Save
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    The lining structure’s durability was studied for the Longtou Mountain large span road tunnel in Guangzhou. Based on the environment and the groundwater analyses, it was concluded that the lining structure is in type I environment and the environment influence is classified as I-B. Therefore, the reinforcement corrosion caused by the concrete carbonization is regarded as the main durability degeneration method. Due to the large span, there is high tensile stress inside the tunnel arch part, which adapts to produce cracks and can greatly accelerate the speed of concrete degeneration. The factors that caused concrete durability problems were particularly analyzed and the mix proportion of concrete was optimized. The results show that the main technical method is to deduce the water-binder ratio to improve the antiosmosis ability and to add fiber to improve the anti-cracking ability. It is also emphasized that quality control during the construction and maintenance and curing in the operation period are crucial for tunnel durability. According to the on-site situation of the Longtou Mountain tunnel, the predicted lining life is over 100 years, which meets the design criterion.
    Application of the iterative optimum method in alignment control oflong-span arch bridge
    LI Chuan-fu,LI Shu-cai,WEI Jian-jun,ZHANG Bo
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(3):  23-27 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 312 )   PDF (622KB) ( 1307 )   Save
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    Aiming at the cablestay system of one long-span CFST(concrete filled steel tubular) arch bridge, the iterative optimization method was introduced into alignment control and cable-force calculation of the erection stage. With the appliance of the once-tension idea, cable-force optimization was separated into parts that performed in every construction stage via reasonable design variable, constraints and optimization objective set up, and the overall alignment control was implemented by iterative loops. Using this method in simulation of arch bridge erection, the precambers and the cable forces ascertained in the first round optimization can basically meet the demand of alignment control after taking nonlinear effect like droop of cable into account.
    Analysis and prevention measures for rockburst in the auxiliary tunnel of the Jinping Hydropower State
    WU Xuan-zheng,LI Ming-chuan,WU Yu-teng
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(3):  28-33 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 326 )   PDF (507KB) ( 2565 )   Save
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    The conditions of rock-burst were analyzed, such as high land stress, geologic conditions, rock structure, etc. The methods to judge rock-burst were summarized by analyzing the mechanism of long and deep-buried tunnel rock-bust. To prevent the harm resulting from rock-bust, and the prevention measures for rock-burst were presented from the practical experience during the rock-burst study in the auxiliary tunnel of the Jinping Hydropower State. The results can supply construction experience and prevention measures for similar engineering.
    The stress distribution law of thinwalled deep beams with the shear-bending coupling
    GUO Jia-long,WANG Zheng-zhong* ,CHEN Lei,ZHU Jun-zuo
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(3):  34-39 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 255 )   PDF (1039KB) ( 1291 )   Save
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    Positive stress belongs to the shear-bending coupling stress of deep beam under uniform load. The traditional formula of the slender beam is no longer suitable because of the comparatively great error, which can cause many problems in the design of a thin-walled deep beam. The flexural differential equation of a beam under lateral force and the calculation formula of positive stress of a thin-walled deep beam with bi-axed symmetrical crosssection under lateral uniform load were put forth, and the influential factors of bending positive stress along the length and height of the beam were analyzed. The software ANSYS was used to analyze two different examples and utilized the result to make precision evaluation on the formula. It indicated that the accuracy meets the requirements. Some instructions to the design of various thin-walled deep beams were obtained.
    The application of the variable fuzzy model in comprehension evaluation of water quality
    XU Wen-jie,CAO Sheng-le
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(3):  40-45 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 274 )   PDF (300KB) ( 1358 )   Save
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    Considering that comprehensive evaluation of water quality involves many indexes, many classifications and interval values, variable fuzzy sets theory is applied. Based on the premise that the same mathematics model is used, index weights are determined by means of the entropy value method, equal weight method and pure threshold value method. The application of this model in Dongchang Lake was given as an example. The stability of features of classification corresponding to each method was analyzed, and the grade of each sample was determined. The calculation result indicates that this proposed model is reasonable and practical.
    Material component determination and explosion energy estimation of the Pingyin urea reactor
    HU De-dong,WANG Wei-qiang,WU Jun-fei,CUI Yu-liang,LI Meng-li,
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(3):  46-50 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 252 )   PDF (298KB) ( 1292 )   Save
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    To determine the explosion cause of Pingyin urea reactor, the chemical and physical explosion energy of the reactor and the hazardous scope of the later were estimated based on the mass estimation of the reactor. It was found that the chemical energy is less than the destructive one of the local reactor, and the hazardous scope of the physical explosion fits with the practice. The results show that the explosion of the reactor is the physical one caused by the stress corrosion cracking of the reactor.
    Relationship analysis of the explosion load type and the failure form of urea reactor
    XU Shu-gen,WANG Wei-qiang,LI Meng-li,SONG Ming-da,
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(3):  51-57 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 305 )   PDF (675KB) ( 1442 )   Save
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    The cases of urea reactor explosion were presented, which can be classified into urea reactor inner explosion and urea reactor vessel explosion according to the explosion consequences. Based on the analysis of the explosion cause, process and consequence of inner explosion and vessel explosion, the corresponding relationship between explosive cause and form were discussed. The cause of urea reactor explosion is boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion due to leakage, and the cause of urea reactor inner-explosion is chemical explosion in the gas phase area, both of which belong to different failure forms.

    Sub-harmonic resonance analysis of 2-DOF controllable plane linkage mechanism electromechanical coupling system
    WANG Ru-gui,CAI Gan-wei
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(3):  58-63 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 274 )   PDF (513KB) ( 1241 )   Save
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    The dynamics of robotic manipulator with the parallelogram hinged mechanism were investigated while it motioned in plane. The controllable motor and the hinged mechanism were studied in an integrated manner, and the electromechanical coupling nonlinear dynamic equation of the system was established by the finite element method. The subharmonic resonance of the system was studied using the method of multiple scales. The first order approximate solutions of the subharmonic resonance of the system were obtained. The characteristics of subharmonic resonance of the system were disclosed, and a numerical example was also discussed.
    Numerical simulation of the flow in a fuel burned vehicle heater
    WANG Wei,MAO Hua-yong,LI Guo-xiang,PAN Shi-yan,GONG Ting-fang,JIN Shi-qiang,HAO Sheng-bing
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(3):  64-68 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 293 )   PDF (948KB) ( 1422 )   Save
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    Effects of TiC nano-sized particle on the microstructure and properties of Si3N4 composite ceramics
    XUE Qiang,AI Xing,ZHAO Jun,ZHOU Yong-hui,YUAN Xun-liang
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(3):  69-72 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 284 )   PDF (615KB) ( 1610 )   Save
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    HP sintering technology was adopted to prepare Si3N4 composite ceramics. The effects of TiC nano-sized particle on the microstructure and the properties of composite ceramics were investigated. The results show that the composite ceramics possess optimum mechanical properties with a flexural strength of 895MPa, fracture toughness of 8.03MPa.m1/2 and hardness of 15.06GPa when the TiC content is 15wt%. It was found that the microstructure with a distinct bimodal size distribution of grain diameters is beneficial to the properties. The fracture morphology is the mixed style including inter-granular fracture and trans-granular fracture.
    The effect of C/C+HA bonerepairing material to the physiological and biochemical response of the crossed Boer Goat
    XUE Cheng-qian,DONG Jian-wen,MENG Xian-feng,CHANG Hong,CAO Ning,CHEN Hua-ying,LI Mu-sen
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(3):  73-76 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 372 )   PDF (441KB) ( 1739 )   Save
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    Carbon/carbon composite material with hydroxyapatite coating (C/C+HA) bone-implant materials has elastic modulus, which is highly close to human bone tissue and of excellent surface biological activity, and has great value of clinical application as a kind of bone replacement material. This study adopted the crossed Boer Goat as the animal experimental model, developed the experiment of C/C+HA composites implanted into bone, and investigated the effect of this implant material on the physiological and biochemical index of the test animal in breathing, heartbeat, digestion, blood and immunity, etc. The results show that although the test animals appeared mildly anemia and their digestion and absorption declined, heat source reaction, acute infection and immunity function decrease were not observed during the 61-day observation period after the implant surgery. It indicates that this material has preferable biological safety.
    Coordination of bidding strategies for two kinds of interruptible load reserve markets on demand side
    LUO Yun-hu,XING Li-dong,WANG Qin,LIU Hai-chun,WENG Xiao-guang
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(3):  77-80 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 382 )   PDF (288KB) ( 1056 )   Save
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    Interruptible load (IL) market can be classified into two kinds of IL markets according to customer participating fashion, namely interruptible load with low price (ILL) market and interruptible load with high compensation (ILH) market. Coordination of bidding strategies in ILL market and ILH market have been ignored and isolated till now. The benefits in ILL market and ILH market are the same and belong to risky benefit. In order to maximize the sum of risk benefit in ILL market and ILH market, customers should coordinate their bidding strategy in ILL market and ILH market according to the interruption cost curve. A mathematical model on the optimization of bidding strategies in ILL market and ILH market was proposed from the viewpoint of risk management and was solved by the sensitivity method on the basis of optimization bidding strategy of individual IL market. Simulation results are presented to validate this method.
    DSP based implementation of the space vector pulse width modulation
    KONG Wei-tao,ZHANG Qing-fan,ZHANG Cheng-hui
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(3):  81-84 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 278 )   PDF (1039KB) ( 4924 )   Save
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    According to the fundamental principle of motors, the space vector theory was analyzed, and a simple space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) method was proposed. The reference voltage space vector was directly synthesized based on the switching state vectors in α-β vectors complex space, and the duration time of each switching state vectors was calculated. The computational efficiency of this algorithm is moderate, and the realtime performance is elegant. Thus the current distortions and torque ripples are lower in the output of the inverter. This given method has been applied to a control system of the threephase induction motor based on TMS320LF2407A. The test results showed that this control system with SVPWM has such merits as simple realization, improved running performance and an enhanced d.c. voltage utilization ratio.
    A new method for the control of a wound-rotor induction machine
    WANG Shan,LI Tian-ze
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(3):  86-89 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 308 )   PDF (308KB) ( 1319 )   Save
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    The principle and characteristics of the induction machine were introduced. A position-sensorless method for rotor-side field-oriented control of a wound-otor induction machine was described. The control algorithm is based on axis transformations. The control algorithm can be started on the fly without knowledge of the initial rotor position. This method is more direct, and dependence on machine parameters was also largely reduced. The operation at synchronous speed is stable, corresponding to zero rotor frequency and is suitable for variable speed constant frequency operations. Rotor-side control of a wound-rotor induction machine is very attractive for variablespeed constantfrequency applications with limited speed range. Simulation and experimental results show excellent performance of the scheme.
    Influence of the dimensions of W-band folded waveguide slow-wave system on its cold characteristics
    YU Hai-bo,LI Yu,YU Tian,LEI Hong
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(3):  90-94 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 308 )   PDF (1381KB) ( 1715 )   Save
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    Influence of the dimensions of W-band folded waveguide slow-wave system on its cold characteristics was investigated, and the power loss of different folded waveguides made of different metal materials was calculated in Wband using the electromagnetic software MAFIA. The calculated results show that the main geometric parameters affecting the dispersion are the geometric period and the value of waveguide broad side; the main geometric parameter influencing the coupling impedance is the value of waveguide narrow side;and the main geometric parameters controlling the power loss are the metal’s conductivity and the value of waveguide narrow side.
    Cultivation of aerobic granular sludge and the kinetics of substrate degradation and biomass growth
    LI Shan-ping,ZHAO Yu-xiao,QIAO Peng,FENG Zheng-zhi
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(3):  95-98 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 283 )   PDF (352KB) ( 2192 )   Save
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    Aerobic granular sludge was cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor with synthetic wastewater by seeding activated sludge. The mature aerobic granular sludge was obtained after 36 days with a diameter ranging from 2mm to 5?mm. The COD removal efficiency is 90%. The kinetics of substrate degradation and biomass growth were discussed. The kinetic coefficients of Ks, Vmax, Y, Kd are 485.0mg/L, 1.2h-1, 0.156kgMLVSS/COD, 0.30d-1 respectively.
    Screening of microbe producing flocculant and optimizationon its cultural conditions
    PAN Duo-tao,LIU Gui-ping,LIU Chang-feng
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(3):  99-103 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 270 )   PDF (462KB) ( 1615 )   Save
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    A strain was screened from soil, and named XMX-1(the bioflocculant produced byXMX-1 named XMX-1F), which has the highest flocculating activity. Cornstarch and the corn steep liquor were chosen as carbon and nitrogen sources. 7.685g/L XMX-1F raw product was obtained from the supernatant by using ethanol. The XMX-1F is mainly composed of polysaccharide, which was determined by Anthrone reaction, ultraviolet spectroscope method and Infrared spectra. The polysaccharide content is 77-87%. In the treatment of high SS waste water, XMX-1F shows high flocculating activity. Study of XMX-1F flocculating coal-washing wastewater indicates the actual application potential of XMX-1F.
    Synthesis and in vitro antibacterial activity of 1,6-Di-(N5-phenyl-N1-diguanido) hexane dihydrochloride
    LIANG Jing-yun,WANG Ming-gang,CHAI Jia-qian,LIU yong-qing
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(3):  104-107 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 290 )   PDF (285KB) ( 1590 )   Save
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    In order to find new agents of antibacterial bis-biguanides with high antibacterial activities and low toxicity, five compounds of 1,6-di-(N5-phenyl-N1-diguanido) hexane dihydrochloride were designed and synthesized by the modified synthetic method reported in the literature according to biological isosterism, of which four compounds have not been reported until now. Compound structures were determined by IR, 1HNMR, and 13CNMR. The biological activity tests show that some compounds have good antibacterial activity in vitro, and toxicity tests show that compounds have low toxicity. The structure-activity relationship was discussed.
    Synthesis and characterization of salicylaldehyde methylthiosemicarbazone Schiff base complexes
    ZHANG Gong-xiao,YANG Rong-hua
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(3):  108-111 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 340 )   PDF (605KB) ( 1437 )   Save
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    New Schiff base ligand and complexes were prepared. 2-methylthiosemicarbazone, the middle product of ceftadine, was selected to react with salicylaldhyde to form new Schiff bases ligand, and then new complexes were synthesized by H2L and transition metal elements with bivalence. The coordination method and construction of the ligand and complexes were characterized by elemental analysis gravity analysis, infrared spectrum analysis, ultraviolet spectrum analysis, molar conductance analysis and thermalgravity analysis. Then the antibacterial ability of the ligand and complexes were studied.
    Numerical simulations for the source coefficient inversion in an advectiondispersion equation with random noisy data
    LIU Jin-qing,LI Gong-sheng
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(3):  112-117 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 421 )   PDF (772KB) ( 1909 )   Save
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    The gradient-regularization method was applied to simulate an inverse problem for determining a source coefficient with final observations in a one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation. In the case of using accurate final data, the inversion results have little defects with the exact solution. Moreover, for the case with random noisy data, the inversion results are also stable which shows that the gradient-regularization algorithm is feasibile and efficient for such kinds of inverse source term problems arising in 1-D solute transportation.
    The properties of pseudo-inverse operators and their applications in the frame theory
    CHEN Tao,TAO Chang-li
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(3):  118-122 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 350 )   PDF (206KB) ( 2306 )   Save
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    The operational properties of the pseudoinverse operators were studied and one kind of the expression of pseudo-inverse operators was obtained. The operator was subjectively bounded in Hilbert space, and then the results were applied to the frame theory. The matrix expression of the pseudo-inverse operator concerning the pre-frame operator was provided, and finally the theory of pseudo-inverse operators to some non-frame sequences was developed.
    Application of the boundary singular kernel method in mixed-mode cracks
    DU Ye,TANG Hong-wei,WANG Wei-dong
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(3):  123-126 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 345 )   PDF (373KB) ( 980 )   Save
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    The essential boundary conditions were imposed in mesh free method by applying the boundary singular kernel method and revising the moving least square(MLS) shape function. This method was used in linear elastic fracture mechanics. The stress intensity factors of mixed-mode cracks were calculated and the stress field near the crack tip was analyzed. The results were also compared with those of full transformation methods.