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Table of Content

      
    16 August 2008
    Volume 38 Issue 4
    Articles
    Vehicle longitudinal acceleration control based on ADRC
    LI Yi-bin ,RUAN Jiu-hong ,LIU Lu-yuan,SONG Rui,RONG Xue-wen
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(4):  1-04 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 342 )   PDF (1293KB) ( 1651 )   Save
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    The active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) method was utilized to study the vehicle longitudinal acceleration control. Firstly the dynamic vehicle longitudinal locomotion model and the dynamic engine model were given, which can use the throttle open angle command as input and the traction force as output,. The ADRC was introduced briefly. Then the models were transformed to an affined model, and the ADRC controller was designed. Finally, the simulations were done under the vehicle and engine’ parameters perturbations and the road disturbance conditions. The results show that the ADRC controller can make the vehicle to accomplish a speedy, smooth and high precision acceleration control effect.
    Study on the lateral locomotion control of ADRC-based high-speed
    mobile platform
    RUAN Jiu-hong ,LI Yi-bin,RONG Xue-wen,QIU Xu-yun
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(4):  5-10 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 259 )   PDF (1241KB) ( 1643 )   Save
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    The active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) method was utilized to study the lateral locomotion control, which is a key technology for the platform (such as high-speed wheeled vehicle and robot) intelligence and autonomous. Firstly the platform lateral locomotion mathematic model with constraints was given, and the ADRC was briefly introduced. Then the model was transformed to a series format with affined models of two sub-systems, and the two ADRC controllers were designed for the two sub-systems, respectively. Finally, the simulations were done under the system parameter perturbations and the road disturbances condition. The results show that the ADRC controllers can make the platform to accomplish smooth and high precision lateral locomotion within 0~40m/s velocity scale. This work can give guidance to the engineering study and design for the high-speed and high-mobility platform.
    The H∞ fault estimation for linear discrete time-varying systems
    LIU Dian-rui,ZHAO Hui-hong,ZHONG Mai-ying
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(4):  11-16 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 213 )   PDF (248KB) ( 1276 )   Save
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    The problem of H∞ fault estimation for a class of linear discrete time-varying systems with l2-norm-bounded disturbance was discussed. First, the problem of H∞ fault estimation was reformulated as the problem of a scalar quadratic form. Then, a corresponding system in Krein space was introduced. By applying white noise estimation theory in Krein space, a sufficient and necessary condition on the existence of an H∞ fault estimator was derived, and a solution was obtained in terms of matrix Riccati equation. A numerical example was given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

    An approach to design the finite-time observer for MIMO-linear systems

    DENG Xiu-cheng,SHEN Yan-jun,FANG Sheng-le
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(4):  17-21 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 257 )   PDF (251KB) ( 1913 )   Save
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    Based on the theory of finite-time stability, an approach to design the finite-time observer for multi-input multi-output linear systems was presented. It was shown that, after a finite time, the designed finite-time observer realizes the accurate reconstruction of the state of the linear systems. A numerical simulation example was given to illustrate the correctness of this method.

    Multiple targets accurate tracking on UAV formation video sequences
    FANG Ting,YANG Zhong,SHEN Chun-Lin
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(4):  22-26 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 223 )   PDF (394KB) ( 2048 )   Save
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    Aiming to meet the requirements of multiple targets accurate tracking of UAV formation video sequences, STK-3D modeling software was utilized to simulate the UAV formation flight video and capture the moving regions by means of double difference operator and multi-resolution connectedness label operator on the simulation video. By using the rectangular moving regions as an initial contour, an improved greedy algorithm was proposed to realize the accurate contour drawing of the UAV targets. The center position of the moving regions being an input variable, the on line Kalman filter group were established to track each target in the video. Consequently, the way was discussed on how to determine and segment the objects when occlusions occur. The simulation results show the efficiency.

    Research on the collaboration strategy of multi-robot for exploring unknown environment

    WU Hao,TIAN Guo-hui,HUANG Bin
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(4):  27-31 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 222 )   PDF (912KB) ( 1770 )   Save
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    Based on observation point fusion, an algorithm named immune network exploration algorithm was proposed to fast accomplish the exploration task of multi-robot for unknown environment. In the case of greatly reducing communication and well calculating the general observation point costs, local observation points of individual robots fused on a map, which can incarnated the collaboration ability of robots enough. Furthermore, the T-cell function was used to update the immune network concentration model, considering that the system performance was affected by diffuse degree and exploring direction of observation points. Simulation results validated that the complete exploration was effectively realized. Simulation results proved that the robots collaboration extent was obviously improved. In addition, the exploration efficiency was greatly improved by adding diffuse degree and exploring direction coincidence indicator.

    Combat effectiveness evaluation method of satellite navigation
    system based on rough fuzzy sets
    DONG Cheng-xi,WU De-wei,HE Jing
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(4):  32-36 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 167 )   PDF (351KB) ( 1265 )   Save
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    with the increasing effect and signification of satellite navigation system in information-age war, a new evaluation method for combat effectiveness——rough fuzzy sets theory (RFS) was proposed based on rough sets and fuzzy sets theory, and the algorithm of RFS was analyzed and designed. Effectiveness evaluation index system of satellite navigation system was also established. Finally, the combat effectiveness of satellite navigation system was evaluated by RFS for instance, and decision rules were also given.
    Empolder and implement of the embedded weld control system
    LI Kan
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(4):  37-41 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 211 )   PDF (995KB) ( 1432 )   Save
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    The design and development of software of the STAW were put forth. The most striking feature of this machine is the realization of the space saddle-type welding seam welding control system by using the interpolation arithmetic, which can replace the method of mechanical differential outfit simulated space curve movement, guarantee the stability of the welding line, and make the track of the welding blowpipe more accurate and the mechanical structure simpler. This work is based on the innovative independent design principles. The project transplants to the Linux operating system to complete the design after relevant reduction of the system.
    Hierarchical fuzzy controller based map-matching algorithm
    TANG Jin-jun,CAO Kai
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(4):  42-46 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 219 )   PDF (436KB) ( 2031 )   Save
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    Map-matching, which can integrate the vehicle positioning data with digital road network, is an important positioning technique in the vehicle navigation system. A novel map-matching algorithm utilizing current positioning point as well as some history positioning points was proposed to improve the disadvantage in the inadequate information of map-matching algorithm by using current positioning point only. A distance between two trajectory curves was defined by an average Fréchet distance measure, and a hierarchical fuzzy controller was designed to perform the uncertain reasoning for map-matching for this system. It can simplify the reasoning rules and improve the efficiency of calculation. Then, the credibility, P, was derived as an estimate index for the map-matching algorithm. The proposed algorithm could provide not only warning information to user when mismatching occurred, but also a means of fast recovery from failure. The results of the experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
    Impact property research on a new type of guardrail terminal for freeway

    L〖AKU¨] Guo-ren,YAN Shu-ming,BAI Shu-feng,JIA Ning,MA Liang

    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(4):  47-52 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 324 )   PDF (2237KB) ( 2178 )   Save
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    Serious accident will happen if car impacts on traditional W-beam guardrail terminal. A new type of W-beam guardrail terminal was invented by conducting FEA(finite element analyse) computer simulation and full-scale impact tests. The performance and mechanics of terminal were analyzed through FEA computer simulation, and the full-scale impact conditions such as impact point and approach angle were also defined by this means. Full-scale impact tests were conducted for the safety evaluation of the new type of W-beam guardrail terminal. The passenger safety was guaranteed by rolling w-beam to absorb accident car's kinetic energy, which can avoid piercing of W-beam into a car or turning over of the accident car. The containment level of standard section of barrier was guaranteed by enough constrain force at guardrail terminal. Full-scale impact test proved that the performance of new type guardrail terminal meets the acceptance criteria.
    The application of dynamic compaction to the reconstruction of old road to expressway and its generalization
    CUI Xin-zhuang,YAO Zhan-yong,SHANG Qing-sen
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(4):  53-56 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 232 )   PDF (753KB) ( 2006 )   Save
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    In the reconstruction of old road to expressway, there are some difficulties constraining the reconstruction such as the differential settlement of sub-grade and the relatively low compaction degree of old embankment. The application of dynamic compaction was studied in the Weihai-Rushan expressway reconstruction engineering. Through the field measurements of excess pore water pressure, dynamic soil stress and soil compaction degree, dynamic compaction parameters for sub-grade and embankment were respectively obtained. After the dynamic compaction, the measurements of the deflection, resilience modulus and settlement showed the dynamic compaction construction method could meet the expressway construction specifications. The dynamic compaction test results were generalized and the tamping-stopping criterion of embankments with different height was put forth.
    Back analysis of initial geostress and its application considering the effect of crude seepage field
    ZHANG Xin,LI Shu-cai,LI Shu-chen
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(4):  57-62 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 197 )   PDF (1497KB) ( 1582 )   Save
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    Based on the engineering-geological conditions and the measured data of geostress at Dagang-shan Hydropower Station, the 3D geological models under each affecting factor were calculated with ABAQUS as a tool for finite element calculation. Then, a multivariate regression model was developed between measured and calculated results of geostress at measurement points, and the regression coefficient of the model was derived. With the model, the regularities of initial geostress distribution were obtained. It is the first time to take the crude seepage field as an affecting factor. By comparing the results with that only taking into account of the effects of dead weight and tectonic function on the initial geostress field, it is found that the crude seepage field can make regression better. Comparisons of different excavation sequence were made based on the back analysis geostress, and the calculation result showed that main openings are well stable with the optimized construction sequence.
    Numerical optimization study on the construction of subsea tunnel
    LI Li-ping,LI Shu-cai,XU Bang-shu,DING Wan-tao,WEI Li-yuan
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(4):  63-68 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 173 )   PDF (2446KB) ( 1663 )   Save
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    The subsea tunnel was constructed with the complex geological condition of connotative fault, and the crush zone and safety excavation for the zone of unfavorable geology with high external water pressure are key for the safety control of subsea tunnel. Based on the initial construction design of this subsea tunnel, numerical simulations were conducted in the case of different geology to obtain the optimal construction sequences and stability analysis, the rock deformation and damage characteristics caused by different construction order and support parameters were studied, and the mutual effect between main tunnel and auxiliary tunnel were analyzed to offer quantitative information and technology support for construction decisionmaking of subsea tunnel.
    Performance analysis on the fibers of a bituminous concrete mixture
    YAO Zhan-yong,ZHANG Yan-jun
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(4):  69-74 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 185 )   PDF (278KB) ( 1776 )   Save
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    This experiment analyzed the road function properties of four familiar type's fibers in bituminous concrete by contrast, which are lignin fibers, acrylic fibers, polyester fibers and mineral fibers. The fibers can notably enhance the performance of bituminous concrete, but the function of fibers and the degrees of enhancement have bigger differences. The acrylic fibers can enhance the high temperature function, low temperature function and the water stability properties of bituminous concrete best, and the polyester fibers and lignin fibers can respectively enhance the above properties less and lest. Although the mineral fibers has the natural function advantage, its function performances are common in the mixture. So the choice of fibers used for road must be considered comprehensively combined with its function in bituminous mixture.
    The computer simulation of the high-resolution electron microscope images
    about monolayer Mg-GP, Si-GP zone in aluminum alloy
    ZOU Xin-guo
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(4):  75-79 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 224 )   PDF (1812KB) ( 1577 )   Save
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    The formation of precursor phases (GP zones) of Al-Mg-Si alloy has important influence on the property of ageing precipitated phase. But the size of GP zone is very small, which is difficult to observe directly. The computer simulation of the high-resolution electron microscope images about the Mg-rich and Si-rich monolayer GP zone was carried out. The simulation results showed that clear high-resolution electron microscope image could be obtained when the GP zones located on the surface of Al matrix. The simulation images also indicated that the Mg-rich and Si-rich GP zones had the opposite comparison. These results provide a reliable theoretical basis for the GP zone study in Al-Mg-Si alloy.
    he explosive energy analysis and calculation of pingyin urea reactor body
    WU Jun-fei ,WANG Wei-qiang ,HU De-dong ,CUI Yu-liang ,
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(4):  80-83 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 196 )   PDF (378KB) ( 1177 )   Save
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    The total explosive energy consumed by the body itself of Pingyin urea reactor was obtained by calculating the projection work of its upper part, the cylinder tearing work and trajectory work of its middle part. The results show that the reactor has enough explosive energy condition by comparing with the expanding or boiling work arising by medium in the reactor and the work consumed by the environment. All of this can provide information for the reactor failure analysis.
    Designing a valve-train cam profile of OHC
    XIE Zong-fa,LU Li,KONG Chao,LIU Shu-chen
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(4):  84-88 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 239 )   PDF (526KB) ( 1966 )   Save
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    When designing valve-train cam on OHC, the desirable configuration of the acceleration curve could be obtained by setting the maximum velocity and the maximum acceleration to the expected position, which can result in the increase of fullness coefficient of the valve lift. Then, the valve movement function was transformed into corresponding cam lift data according to the geometric transmission relationship between the valve and the cam. The cam design and test demonstrate that the designing method is feasible and the new designed valve system can improve the intake performance of the engine.
    Calibration of the high-pressure common rail injection system based on typical profile
    WANG Jun ,WANG Hong-rong,ZHANG You-tong,LI Jian-chun,LIU Lian-da
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(4):  89-92 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 282 )   PDF (454KB) ( 1833 )   Save
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    In order to meet the demand of high-pressure common rail system equipped in diesel engine, calibration for high-pressure common rail injection system was made. Combining with parameter of typical profile in diesel engine, the demand on flow rate scope of the high pressure pump was analyzed, the relation between pumping fuel quantity with controlled frequency and pulse width was calibrated, and the controlled pulse width of common rail pressure under different rotation speed was given. Factor effecting injection quantity uniformity was briefly analyzed, undulation quantity and injecting pulse revising was put forth to meet the respective demand. Preliminary test of high-pressure common rail system in diesel engine was given, and the testing result proves the reasonability of this calibration process.
    On-line supervision system for heat-exchanging stations of a district heating system
    ZHOU Shou-jun ,ZHANG Guan-min,XUE Ai-jun
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(4):  93-96 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 269 )   PDF (1128KB) ( 1528 )   Save
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    Based on the Field-bus technology and PID fuzzy control technology, the on-line supervising system for the heat-exchanging stations of district heating system was developed. This system can realize the real-time on-line supervising for the main operating parameters of heat-exchanging stations with independently developed on-line supervisory software package, and can also realize data storing and analyzing, failures detecting and alarming either. The main operating parameters include temperature and pressure of primary steam network, temperature and pressure of water supply and back system of secondary network, and so on. This system can effectively help the managers of district heating system to monitor the local operating mode, and regulate major operating parameters. Therefore, the increases of the safety, stability and economy of district heating system can be achieved.

    An algorithm for under-determined blind source separation based on the least-mean-square error and sparse features

    BAI Shu-zhong ,LIU Ju,SUN Guo-xia
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(4):  97-101 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 217 )   PDF (1168KB) ( 2276 )   Save
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    An algorithm was presented based on the least-mean-square error and sparse features for under-determined blind source separation, i.e., observed signal numbers are less than sources numbers., Based on clustering method, the mixing matrix was first estimated by a new potential function using the sparseness of sources. By using the estimated mixing matrix and the self-correlation of sources and searching the accurate values at the source clustering directions, the optimal sub-matrix for separation was obtained according to the least-mean-square error criterion. This can overcome the disadvantages of traditional algorithm in searching the optimal sub-matrix. Simulation results show the separated signals have higher SNR, and the proposed approach has better separation performance compared with the other similar methods.
    The radiation research of electrical and optical properties on InGaN solar cell materials
    DONG Shao-guang,FAN Guang-han
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(4):  102-106 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 214 )   PDF (733KB) ( 1459 )   Save
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    It is shown that the energy gap of In1-xGaxN alloys can be continuously varied from 0.7 to 3.4eV, which can make it possible for multi-junction solar cells materials to provide a full-sola-spectrum material system. It is found that the electronic properties of these alloys exhibit a much higher resistance to high-energy(2MeV)proton irradiation than the standard currently used photovoltaic materials such as GaAs and GaInP, and therefore offer great potential for radiation-hard solar cells. The observed insensitivity of the semiconductor characteristics to the radiation damage was explained by the location of the band edges relative to the average dangling bond defect energy represented by the Fermi level stabilization energy in In1-xGaxN alloys.
    Analysis on the dynamic frequency-and phase-tracking characteristics of phase-locked loop
    GONG Yu-lei,WANG Hui,LI Qing-min
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(4):  107-111 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 229 )   PDF (374KB) ( 2371 )   Save
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    Based on analysis of the operating mechanism of Phase-locked loop (PLL), a second-order equivalent model was established for PLL’s tracking error by use of transfer function methodology, and theoretical analysis was done regarding the dynamic frequency-and phase-tracking performance of PLL. A simulation model of PLL was constructed on MATLAB for verification, with which simulations were carried out with regard to various circumstances of input signals, such as frequency and phase step-change, continuous temporary change of frequency, harmonics distortion, etc. Both theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show that PLL renders typical behaviors similar to that of a second-order control system, which will inevitably result in response time, over-adjust and deviation, and thereby some concrete conditions are required to realize accurate tracking to input signals. The research results present valuable reference basis for application prerequisites determination, peripheral circuit parameters design and performance amelioration of PLLs.
    Synthesis and performance evaluation of a novel betaine-type asphalt emulsifier
    SHI Lai-shun,WAN Zhong-yi
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(4):  112-115 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 278 )   PDF (406KB) ( 1512 )   Save
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    A novel cationic betaine-type asphalt emulsifier was synthesized. N,N-(2-hydroxypropyl)(acetic acid)-N'-octadecyl-propylenediamine hydrochloride was synthesized by the reaction of alkyldiamine, 1,2-epoxypropane and chloroacetic acid. Its structure was characterized by FTIR. The optimum reaction condition was obtained by the close investigation of various influencing factors of the reaction. The emulsifier has good emulsifying ability to the asphalt. It belongs to slow breaking rapid setting emulsifier. The CMC of the emulsifier is 1.52×10-4mol/L determined by the surface tension method. The surface tension is 39.25×10-3N/m at CMC.
    The method study of dual capillary column gas chromatography with electron capture detection for the determination of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls
    LIU Jing ,CUI Zhao-jie,XU Hong-yu,TAN Feng-xun
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(4):  116-122 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 302 )   PDF (1091KB) ( 1852 )   Save
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    A new and simple method was developed for the determination of 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in samples using complementary separation on a dual column system with low and intermediate polarities. PCBs were extracted from the sample by soxhlet extraction, concentrated and purified by a two-step clean-up with 98% sulfuric acid/permanganate and Florisil column, qualitative and quantitative analyses of dl-PCBs at Pg/g level were performed by the two retention data on dual capillary gas chromatography with a 63Ni electron capture detection (GC-ECD), and the co-elution between 12 dl-PCBs and the bulk PCBs and pesticides was solved. The accuracy of qualitative analysis was confirmed by the gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) using selective ion mode (SIM) technique. This method was validated: accuracy was estimated from the recovery of spiked analytes from the matrix; precision was estimated from the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the duplicate analyses of unspiked sample. The recoveries of target analysts were found to be in the range of 82-109.8%, dropped in the range of certified value by US.EPA 70-140%, the RSDs of 12 dioxin-like PCBs were in ranged of 1.62-14.86%, and were all less than 20%. The application of this analysis method to the determination of dioxin-like PCB in dust-deposition, sediment and soil samples from the Yellow River delta is successful.
    Bounds for spectral radii of iterative matrices
    LU Yong-jie,SONG Dai-cai,LIU Jing
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(4):  123-126 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 249 )   PDF (210KB) ( 1615 )   Save
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    For solving a system of linear equations with the form of Ax=b,it often splits A into A=M-N, Where M is nonsingular. It is known that x(k+1)=M-1Nx(k)+M-1b (k=0,1,2,…) converges to the solution x=A-1b for each x(0) if and only if spectral radius ρ(M-1N)<1. The matrix M-1N is called an iterative matrix. It is easy to see the estimates for bounds of  ρ(M-1N) are interested.A concept of G-functions introduced by Hoffman and Nowosad was introduced to generalized G-functions,and the concept generalized Gfunctions were applied to obtain the bounds for moduli eigenvalues of the iterative matrices. The bounds for spectral radii of iterative matrices M-1N were obtained and applied for solving linear systems. The obtained results improve the known corresponding results. Finally, a numerical example was given for illustrating the advantage of the results.