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Table of Content

      
    16 April 2008
    Volume 38 Issue 2
    Articles
    Microstructure and properties of Fe-based  amorphous/nanocrystalline composite coatings
    ZHU Qing-jun,ZOU Zeng-da,WANG Xin-hong,QU Shi-yao
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(2):  1-5 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 424 )   PDF (983KB) ( 1893 )   Save
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    Amorphous/nanocrystalline composite coatings were prepared by laser crystallization of the FeNiSiBVCRE amorphous coatings fabricated on 45 steel by laser cladding. Microstructure and properties of the amorphous/nanocrystalline composite coatings were studied by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy abrasion tester. The results show that the crystalline phase, amorphous phase and nanocrystalline phase co-existed in the coating. There are a lot of dendritic crystallines of rare earth, boride crystallines in lathshaped and carbide crystallines in graininess both in the bottom and upper zones of the coating. However, in the middle of the coating, there are a lot of nanocrystalline grains embedded on an amorphous matrix. Compared with the amorphous coatings, the wear resistant property of the coating is lowered. The predominant wear mechanisms are adhesion and peeling.
    In situ synthesis of TiC-VC particles reinforced Fe-basedMMC coatings produced by laser cladding
    ZHAO Guan-lin,ZOU Zeng-da,WANG Xin-Hong,DU Bao-shuai
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(2):  6-9 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 381 )   PDF (640KB) ( 1684 )   Save
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    Using a 5kW CO2 laser, in situ synthesis of TiC-VC particles reinforced Fe-based alloy composite coatings were put forth by using ferrotitanium, ferrovanadium and graphite. The microstructure and properties of the composite coatings were investigated by optical microscopy, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) and a skimming wear machine. Results indicate that TiC-VC particles can be produced by direct metallurgical reaction between ferrotitanium, ferrovanadium and graphite during the laser cladding process. It was also found that fine TiC-VC particles disperse in the matrix. The wear-resisting property of the higher TiC-VC particles coating is larger than the lower ones in certain areas.
    The effect of composition on the latent heat of solidification for the Al-Cu alloy
    ZHENG Hong-liang,KONG Fan-li,TIAN Xue-lei
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(2):  10-12 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 388 )   PDF (356KB) ( 2287 )   Save
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     The latent heat of Al-Cu alloy was investigated during the solidification process with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The result indicates that the latent heat of this alloy decreases with an increase of the copper content ranging from 5% to 29.% in molar ratio. The relationship is linear between the latent heat and the mass percentage of every phase. A formula was derived for calculating the latent heat.
    Post-processing of finite element analysis for the 3D microstructure of polycrystalline materials
    LIU Yu-zhen,XU Cheng-qiang
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(2):  13-17 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 366 )   PDF (372KB) ( 1827 )   Save
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    For the post-processing of a finite element system for the microstructure of polycrystalline materials, an idea of developing software FEPost-processing (3D version) was introduced. This software’s subject was 3D digital material based on finite element’s software ABAQUS created by Voronoi technology, of which the finite element ideas and technology were used. A suitable algorithm was used to transplant the node based database into the element based ones. Then the kind of grain that this element belongs to was determined. The element information was processed by the volume weight average method. The quantitative characterization was accomplished for the internal state variables of polycrystalline materials after its loading from the monotonic scale. A visualization of the Mechanics’ Characteristic was obtained.
    Finite element analysis for the thermal residual stress of gradient CWS ceramic nozzles
    YUAN Dong-ling,DENG Jian-xin,DING Ze-liang,DUAN Zhen-xing
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(2):  18-22 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 371 )   PDF (719KB) ( 1094 )   Save
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    According to the main reason of the cause of failure at the exit surface of the CWS ceramic nozzle, the gradient function material (FGM) theory was applied into the design and manufacture of CWS ceramic nozzle material, which aimed to induce a compressive residual stress and reduce the tensile stress at the entry area of the FGM ceramic nozzles.  The coefficients of thermal expansion of the constituent phases and neighboring layers, the physical models of FGM-Z and FGM-R were set up by the optimum component distribution.  Analyzing by FEM, the results show that available compressive stress fields are found to exist in the two FGM nozzles, especially in the inner-hole surface of FGM-R ceramic nozzle.  The design model of FGM-R was determined by comparison.
    Start process control of a hydrodynamic-mechanical automatic transmission
    WANG Juan,CHEN Hui-yan,DING Hua-rong
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(2):  23-27 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 475 )   PDF (434KB) ( 1591 )   Save
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    In order to study the control strategy of the clutch in the start process of a hydrodynamicmechanical automatic transmission,  the hypostasis of the torque converter and the shift clutch in the start process was clarified according to the detailed analysis of the dynamic model of the start process of a vehicle with a hydrodynamic-mechanical automatic transmission. There are different start processes if different start gears were chosen or different road resistances at the same start gear were put forward in this viewpoint. The control strategy of the clutch was designed for different start processes. According to the contrast of two kinds of test data of the start process, the control strategy was analyzed, and the validity of the control strategy was proved.
    The fuel quantity correction and calibration of the high pressure common-rail diesel engine
    WANG Hong-rong,ZHANG You-tong,WANG Jun,DING Xiao-liang
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(2):  28-32 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 603 )   PDF (410KB) ( 2797 )   Save
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    The correction methods and matching strategy of fuel quantity were studied with the high pressure common-rail diesel engine. The influences of processing precision difference of the individual injector,  diversity of the injector driven current and the pressure fluctuation affecting the coherence of the injection quantity were analyzed. The injection fuel quantity was corrected by feed-back control of the driven current and compensation of the energizing pulse. By analyzing the  engine operation point, the matching strategy of fuel quantity on common-rail diesel engine was designed. The fuel quantity MAP was calibrated with an asymmetric step according to the frequency and importance of the engine operation. Finally, experiments were done on a test bench to verify the correction strategies. Experimental results show that the control and compensation strategies could improve the coherence of the injection fuel quantity.
    Cylindricity error evaluation based on genetic algorithms
    BEI Guang-xia,LOU Pei-huang,WANG Xiao-yong,ZHU Heng-yun,DU Hui
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(2):  33-36 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 418 )   PDF (368KB) ( 1550 )   Save
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    An objective function was proposed to evaluate the minimum zone cylindricity error. The error model was optimized by genetic algorithm(GA). The mathematical model can work out the minimum zone solution of the cylindricity error with arbitrary position in space, and there are no special requirements in choosing measurement points. A test was given to prove that the optimal approximation solution to the cylinder axis's vectors and minimum zone cylindricity can be worked out by the objective function. The approach can also be extended to solve  other form and position errors when a cylinder axis is used as datum.
    An improved iteration model for coupled activitiesin product design
    ZHANG Jin-biao
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(2):  37-41 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 404 )   PDF (331KB) ( 1936 )   Save
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    The three determinants for a successful product development are higher quality, lower cost and shorter time-to-market. These determinants interact with each other in the whole process of product design and the emphasis on any one of them will induce the cost of others. The needed balance among them is extremely complex, especially in the design process, which is a major part of the product development processes. The primary problems lie in that a design process inherently contains a number of coupling activities, which imply potential iteration of the process. Hence, how to model the design iterations and seek the balance on allocating limited resources to facilitate each of the three determinants for an iterative design process has become one focus of recent research. An analytical model (M-WTM) is presented for modeling design iterations and providing estimates in terms of time, costs, and resources by dint of detailed analysis of the interrelationship among design activities, which is based on the work transformation matrix (WTM). According to the resources, this model will tackle purely sequential iteration, purely parallel iteration or mixed iteration. A complicated example, profiled bar product development design, was employed to illustrate the effectiveness of M-WTM.
    Study on the transformation activation energy in InN semiconductor nanocrystals
    WANG Jian-ping,WANG Shu-hua,GENG Gui-li
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(2):  42-44 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 409 )   PDF (216KB) ( 1496 )   Save
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    The relationship between transformation activation energy E, heating rate Φ and peak temperature Tp was induced. The characteristic parameter Tp was studied during the process of changing from the room temperature cubic phase to the high temperature hexagonal phase in InN semiconductor nanocrystals by differential scanning calorimetry at different heating rates. According to the induced expression and experimental data,the calculated transformation activation energy is E=1.3466×103kJ/mol.
    Image retrieval based on multi-scale analysis and SVM relevance feedback
    ZHOU Xin-hong,PENG Yu-hua,LIU Yong,QU Huai-jing
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(2):  45-50 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 331 )   PDF (608KB) ( 1669 )   Save
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    An image retrieval scheme based on multiscale analysis and SVM relevance feedback was proposed. First, a more accurate texture feature was extracted in Contourlet domain than Wavelet due to its multiresolution and directionality. One class and binary class SVM were combined to retrieve. The one class SVM can estimate the distribution of data in high dimensional space, and  exploit unlabeled data to get a primary similarity measure order. Then binary class SVM was used to get the labeled sample information through learning user's feedback, which finally improved the retrieval accuracy. The experimental results demonstrate the reasonability and effectiveness of the scheme. The most appropriate feedback image quantity and feedback times were proposed.
    The blind color image watermarking algorithm based on the RBF neural networks
    WU Tian-zhu
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(2):  51-55 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 388 )   PDF (461KB) ( 1331 )   Save
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     A new blind watermarking scheme for color image was proposed. In this scheme, a binary logo watermark was embedded into the discrete cosine transform (DCT) domain of the color image with the help of radial basis function (RBF) neural networks. According to HVS, the original image was transformed from the RGB color space to the brightness and chroma (YCrCb) space. In order to strengthen the imperceptibility and robustness, the watermark was embedded into the DC coefficient of 8×8 blocks in CrCb chroma components. A key was set to select blocks where the watermark was embedded, which can improve the security of the watermark. Also, RBF was used to learn and approximate the inverse procedure of quantization, and watermark embedding and extraction was performed with the trained neural network to further improve the robustness. Simulations show that the proposed method has good imperceptibility as well as robustness to common image processing attacks.
    A multi-channel identity verification system based on face and voice
    CHEN Tao,FANG Zhi-gang,XU Jie
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(2):  56-60 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 384 )   PDF (310KB) ( 2063 )   Save
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    With the development of Ecommerce and financial trade, identity verification has been widely used. A verification system based on face and voice was given. Two algorithms of a reconstruction error classifier based on eigenfaces and speaker verification based on the Gaussian mixture model were realized. Finally, an alternative to the construction of the support vector machine (SVM) kernels from the orthogonal polynomials was presented. Experimental results show that the SVMs with orthogonal polynomial kernels outperform those with traditional kernels in terms of generalization power and less support vectors.
    Temperature detection of a rotary kiln based on three-color measurement and the BP neural network
    YAO Fu-an,PANG Xiang-kun,JIAO Ying-ying,WANG Zhong-lin,ZHANG Xi-man
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(2):  61-65 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 371 )   PDF (483KB) ( 1402 )   Save
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     Burning is a very complex process in a rotary kiln, for lack of temperature detection in the past. A three-color temperature measurement formula was established on the basis of three primary color principles and the plank law. Combined with digital image processing and optical technology, a method of temperature detection based on the BP neural network was put forth. The software and hardware design of this system were presented, and the engineering realization was also given. The results show that this system is simple and convenient for practical application, which has higher measurement accuracy and better suitability than the traditional detection method. This technology can be used to realize the on-line detection of the temperature field, and evaluate the combustion situation in the furnace in conformity with reality.
    A polygonal finite element method based on irrational function interpolation
    LI Shu-cai,WANG Zhao-qing,LI Shu-chen
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(2):  66-70 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 390 )   PDF (265KB) ( 2148 )   Save
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    The irrational function forms interpolation on a polygonal element with arbitrary nodal distribution was constructed by using mean value coordinates of polygonal elements. The polygonal finite element method for solving boundary value problems of differential equations was presented. For a curved boundary, the polygonal meshes can exactly approximate the arbitrary geometric shape by proper nodal distribution. The expressions of shape function within different elements are uniform. It is convenient to program the computer codes for finite element analysis. Numerical examples on second order elliptical boundary value problems are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method.
    Strength characteristic analysis of box girder bridge pavement
    WANG En-dong,
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(2):  71-76 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 358 )   PDF (1400KB) ( 1301 )   Save
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    The destruction of bridge pavement is prevalent, according to the use of the box girder bridge (BGB). In order to explain the reason for pavement crazing, the characteristic of the received strength from bridge pavement was analyzed. The main complication of bridge pavement breakage and measure of amelioration were studied dynamically.

    Numerical simulation and monitoring analysis of the stability of the underground power house of the Tai′an Pumped-Storage Power Station
    LI Jing-long,LI Shu-cai,LI Shu-chen,WANG Gang,SUN Ke-guo
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(2):  77-82 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 295 )   PDF (997KB) ( 1286 )   Save
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    The under-ground power house of Tai′an Pumped-Storage Power Station was elasticplastic numerically simulated using the three-dimensional fast Lagrangian analysis of the Continua method. Then the dynamic process in the wall rock was simulated. The changing law of displacements and stresses of the rock-mass was studied. Many monitoring instruments were installed during construction, and much information was received. Based on the complete observation information of the Tai’an Pumped-Storage Power Station, the deformation data of the wall rock were studied. The conclusion shows that the underground power house is steady in principle. In addition,the displacement between computation and observation of certain points in the rock were compared with each other. The results show that the rules of computation and observation results are approximately consistent with each other. It is feasible that underground power houses can be simulated by this method. It will be a  significant reference to other stability analyses of large underground powerhouses.
    Simulation of water quality research of Dongchang Lake using WASP
    SUN Wen-zhang,CAO Sheng-le,XU Guang-jie
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(2):  83-85 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 370 )   PDF (359KB) ( 1601 )   Save
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     WASP(water quality analysis simulation program) was developed by the EPA to simulate the water quality of rivers and lakes and so on. Based on the pollution situation and the water quality historical data of Dongchang Lake, using EUTRO, which is a submodule of WASP, a tested simulation was put forth on the water quality of Dongchang Lake in a specific time period. The simulation results show that the average relative error is small, and the change trend of each indicator is consistent. Therefore, the use of WASP in simulation of the water quality of Dongchang Lake is feasible and effective.
    Application of the variable fuzzy set theory in assessment of the modernization level in rural areas of Shandong Province
    ZHAO Ran-hang,LIU Xiao-li
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(2):  86-91 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 337 )   PDF (259KB) ( 1262 )   Save
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    The rural water resources modernization is the precondition and the foundation for realizing the modernization of water resources and agriculture, of which scientifically assessement and measurement has an important purpose in the instruction of the construction of rural water resources and realization of the modernization of water resources. The variable fuzzy set model was applied in a comprehensive assessment of the rural water resources modernization level of Shandong Province. The results indicate that this model is reasonable, simple, more reliable and practicable. It can be applied in a similar assessment of other regions.

    The solution of a oneedge crack of a finite plate with the influence of  couple stress in a uniform tension field

    HAO Ming-hui,WANG Xi-ping,WANG Min,ZHOU Shen-jie
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(2):  92-95 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 334 )   PDF (587KB) ( 1415 )   Save
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    There is stress concentration in the crack tip. It has apparent effect on the stress field of the crack tip and the fracture behavior of the material.The stress concentration factor of a finite plate in a uniform tension field with the element-free method was calculated based on the couple stress theory, and the influence of couple stress on the stress field in crack tip was analyzed. The result shows the feasibility and efficiency of this method. 
    Combinative time series analysis method for the prediction  of the groundwater level
    LIAO Huo-mu,DONG Zeng-chuan,SHU Long-cang,YUN Ru-an
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(2):  96-100 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 323 )   PDF (318KB) ( 1711 )   Save
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    Traditional GM(1,1) and time series analysis method were integrated together to establish the groundwater level forecast model.  The fading memory least square methods was applied in the process of confirming the parameters of GM(1,1) in order to more factually reflect the phenomena of the groundwater level's statistic rule varying with the time. The periods components were analyzed with the variance analysis method and the starting phases were optimized. Under the condition that more than one F-statistic values of periods were over the critical values of the selected confidence degree, what rules can be adopted to decide which period should be first selected. The rule was put forward that the ratio of F-statistic value of  selected period's being divided by the critical value of the examination interval should be the greatest. Finally, the yearly highest groundwater levels in Longyan Basin in the west of  Fujian Province were forecast with this method.
    Experimental and numerical modeling for the location of abucket aerator on an arch structure
    ZHANG Dun,HOU Jing-ming,LIU Han-sheng,XU Gen-hai
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(2):  101-105 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 339 )   PDF (566KB) ( 1572 )   Save
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    The flow of the arch structure with a bucket aerator was calculated by the turbulence model, and the results were verified by experimental data. It shows that this numerical model can to a certain extent accurately simulate the jet overflow and cavity behind the bucket aerator. The location of the bucket aerator was studied in the experiment. The laying position of the bucket aerator is better downstream than upstream with the same configuration and hydraulic condition, of which the former has more stable flow, weaker spray and better aeration, so it can successfully alleviate cavitations by air entrainment. This model and the location optimization conclusion for a bucket aerator are of great significance for the configuration and laying of the aerator on arch structure.

    Structure style selection of the mid-tower of a three-tower suspension bridge
    RUAN Jing,JI Lin,ZHU Ping-peng
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(2):  106-111 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 478 )   PDF (346KB) ( 2211 )   Save
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    Compared with common twotower suspension bridges, the total stiffness of a three-tower suspension bridge is relatively small, and the ratios of the deflection to span of the bridge are larger. The midtower structure of a threetower suspension bridge has great influence on the mechanical behavior of the whole bridge. Based on the analysis of the Taizhou Bridge, a three-tower suspension bridge, the design restrictions of a three-tower suspension bridge were analyzed, such as the deflection of the main span and the anti-slipping safety factor between the main cable and saddle of the midtower. The analysis based on the finite element method shows that the stiffness of the midtower is the key factor of the mid-tower structure selection, the appropriate stiffness of the mid-tower is between 23~28MN/m for the Taizhou Bridge, and the appropriate structure is a herringbone structure.
    Study of the attribute union theory and attribute reduction algorithm
    JIAO Ji-cheng,GAO Xue-dong,WANG Yuan-pu,ZHAO Chuan-ling
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(2):  112-116 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 430 )   PDF (248KB) ( 1587 )   Save
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    Attribute reduction in rough set is the key content of rough set theory. It is a NP-hard problem to get the minimal attribute sets. The attribute union was presented based on the set theory, the attribute reduced procedure was translated to find the attribute union, and the reduced efficiency was improved.
    Game analysis of manufacturer and different suppliers
    JIANG Peng-fei,WANG Zhen
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(2):  117-119 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 477 )   PDF (227KB) ( 1583 )   Save
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    The chief mode of market competition has turned its steps to the company coalitions from that among companies, which is called supply chains’ competition. According to the real condition of supply chain management, a game model of companies on a two-stage supply chain with different suppliers and one manufacturer was built. The equilibrium value and the influential factors of players’ payoffs were analyzed. A conclusion was made that both the supplier and manufacturer should seek more companies to trade off, and the relationship between them is not only competitive but absolutely “winwin”.
    Optimal design of online multiunit dynamic auctions
    CHEN Sheng-li,WU Hui-qiu,LUO Yun-feng
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(2):  120-126 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 382 )   PDF (303KB) ( 1567 )   Save
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    Aiming to overcome the disadvantage of current online auction mechanisms design, the variable characteristic of online auctions was given, the dynamic program theory was introduced and the method of marginal revenue and marginal cost were analyzed.  In addition, the optimal number of online multi-unit dynamic auctions,  the online multi-unit optimal dynamic uniformprice auctions and the online multiunit optimal dynamic discriminatory auctions were studied. Finally, a  comparative analysis of these two auction mechanisms was given.