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Table of Content

      
    16 October 2008
    Volume 38 Issue 5
    Articles
    Traffic information fusion algorithm of RBF network based on an artificial immune system and fuzzy clustering
    YANG Li-cai,YE Yang,NIE Hong-tao,LIU Hui-hui,LIN Jie
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(5):  1-5 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 626 )   PDF (388KB) ( 1522 )   Save
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    In the research of radial basis function neural network applied to traffic information fusion, a fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering algorithm has been used to determine the radial center of a hidden layer network. This method generally randomly initializes the clustering centers, and the training process is easy to get into a local minimum. With the clonal selection theory in the artificial immune systems, a new algorithm used for calculating the initial clustering centers was presented. By integrating a modified artificial immune algorithm with FCM clustering algorithm, RBF structural parameters were optimized. This algorithm can overcome the shortcomings of getting into local optimization from traditional algorithms, increase the convergent rate, and obtain better fusion effects. Experiments verify the efficiency and practicability of this algorithm.
    Hybrid hub-and-spoke network planning of road express freight
    ZHANG Jian,WU Yao-hua,LIU Pei,WANG Yan-yan
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(5):  6-9 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 472 )   PDF (268KB) ( 1276 )   Save
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    Compared with pure hub-and-spoke transportation networks, the hybrid hub-and-spoke system with direct routes can decrease the transshipped freight volume, give shorter service time and reduce the operating costs. Taking a regional express freight company as an example, the direct routes were added to its original hub-and-spoke network and mathematical models were proposed. Using a genetic algorithm and specific strategy of choosing vehicle types, a hybrid hub-and-spoke system with direct routes was developed. The simulation result indicated that the operating costs of this company were reduced 2.76% after adopting the new hybrid hub-and-spoke network.
    Preparation process and performance of asphalt-rubber
    YANG Yong-shun,CAO Wei-dong,LI Ying-yong,ZHANG Chong-gao
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(5):  10-13 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 485 )   PDF (575KB) ( 2576 )   Save
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    The effect of crumb rubber with different particle sizes and contents on the properties of crumb rubber modified asphalt, and a change rule of performance of asphaltrubber with reaction temperature and time were studied. The results indicate that asphaltrubber has the best performance when 80 mesh and 15 % crumb rubber mass content were applied. The performance of asphalt-rubber strongly depends on the reaction temperature and time. When reaction temperature is higher than 200℃ and reaction more than 60 minutes, the viscosity of asphalt-rubber significantly declines with reaction temperature and time increasing. The asphaltrubber starts aging when reaction time is longer than 4 hours at high temperatures. Based on these results, some suggestions for production and application of asphaltrubber were put forth.
    Tunnel middle wall bearing weight model and stability criterion and its application
    WANG Han-peng,ZHENG Xue-fen,LI Shu-cai,FAN Li
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(5):  14-18 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 463 )   PDF (646KB) ( 1323 )   Save
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    Conforming a reasonable middle wall of a multi-type tunnel and neighborhood tunnel is a difficult problem in tunnel design. The relation between middle wall stress and tunnel span, and middle wall width and tunnel depth was discussed. The stress in a middle wall under different middle wall widths and different tunnel depths was gained by a numerical method. The middle wall bearing weight correction coefficient K was confirmed by the recursive method. Therefore, a tunnel middle wall bearing weight model was set up. For the concrete middle wall of a multi-type tunnel, the uniaxial pressure intensity is its limited intensity. For a neighborhood tunnel, the limited intensity of the middle wall rock reinforced by prestress bolts was deduced on the basis of limit equilibrium condition. According to middle wall stress and limit intension, middle wall stability criterion was presented, of which its application in tunnel middle wall design was illustrated and validated by elastoplastic FEM result.
    The dynamic response of saturated asphalt pavement under wheel loads
    CUI Xin-zhuang,JIN Qing
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(5):  19-24 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 618 )   PDF (1439KB) ( 1727 )   Save
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    Based on fast Lagrangian finite difference method and the Biot consolidation theory considering the inertia force of asphalt concrete and water, a dynamic coupled fluidsolid analysis of the pavement was put forth with asphalt mixtures as porous medium for studying the dynamic water pressure in asphalt pavement. The results show that the development and dissipation of dynamic pore water pressure are coinstantaneous, which makes the plus and minus pore water pressure and seepage force both alternate with time. The process of repetitive hydrodynamic pumping and sucking during waterinduced damage was proved. The dynamic pore water pressure increases with vehicle velocity increase. The effective stress and the deflection of pavement all decrease due to dynamic pore water pressure. However, the emulsification and replacement of the asphalt membrane is accelerated by water. The maximum dynamic pore water pressure occurs at the bottom of the surface layer, which suggesting that a drain layer should be set up to change the drainage condition from a singlesided drain to a twosided drain, and the waterinduced damage can be decelerated effectively.

    Prediction and early-warning technology of geological hazards in tunnel informational construction

    XUE Yi-guo,LI Shu-cai,ZHANG Qing-song,LI Shu-chen,SU Mao-xin,LIU Qin
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(5):  25-30 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 649 )   PDF (895KB) ( 1157 )   Save
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    High risk of geological hazards such as landslide, burst mud and spring water often occur in karst areas during the informational construction of a tunnel, which can bring momentous disaster and unknown economic loss to construction safety. The precise and immediate forecast for the geological hazards, and how to make it under effective control were the key problem to be researched and resolved currently in tunnel dynamic designation and informational construction in karst areas, which can bring about important theoretical significance and practical value. Geological disaster is forecasted by using integrated geological prediction technology immediately before tunnel excavation, and the geological disaster caused by rock deformation was early detected by use of monitoring and measurement technology. Landslide, bay mud and gushing water were predicted and detected successfully to avoid casualties and major economic loss.
    Rank evaluation of sand liquefaction based on Extenics
    HUANG Zeng-yan,WANG Guang-yue,LI Qian,ZHAO Ming
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(5):  31-35 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 526 )   PDF (261KB) ( 1670 )   Save
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    There are various methods having different factors for the evaluation of sand liquefaction. Those different factors of different methods can not be employed together due to the difference in the evaluation standard for different methods, which cause the limitation of the traditional evaluation methods. Based on extension, a quantitative evaluation model for sand liquefaction of multiple parameters was developed, of which the evaluation indexes can come optimally near to the actual situation, and the solution is more efficient than traditional evaluation. Based on the improved analytic hierarchy, the actual problem in the project was better solved by using Extenics to evaluate the ranks of sand liquefaction.
    Three dimensional numerical analyses of heat and mass transfer in a wet cooling tower
    ZHAO Yuan-bin,SUN Feng-zhong,WANG Kai,GAO Ming
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(5):  36-41 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 441 )   PDF (1301KB) ( 2232 )   Save
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    Abstract: Based on CFD code FLUENT and heat and mass transfer theory, the governing equations of air and water and the theory model of heat and mass transfer between air and water were set up for a natural draft counterflow wet cooling tower (NDWCT). The models of forces brought to each phase were set up resorting to discrete phase model and experimental correlation. Adopting the standard k-ε model to close the Reynolds average equations, the threedimensional heat and mass transfer process in NDWCT was simulated and analyzed. The fields of air velocity, temperature and moisture content show that there are regions where the temperatures of air and cooling water are less than the ambience dry bulb temperature in a rain zone, which also indicates that the longitudinal eddy upon the inlet has a negative effect on the local intensity of heat and mass transfer. The cooling water evaporation rate in each zone was computed and investigated. The water mass flow rate radial distribution curves at different heights and the distribution field of the mass flow rate ratio of air to water were given to analyze the evaporation intensity, which indicated that heat and mass transfer mainly occurs in the fill zone.
    Transport capacity analysis for special cross section heat pipes in radiators
    QU Yan,CHENG Lin,LUAN Tao
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(5):  42-45 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 454 )   PDF (900KB) ( 2082 )   Save
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    To secure the reliability of a thermal control system for an electronics system of a space experiment system, a thermal analysis of heat transport capacity was performed for the embedded heat pipes, which are the key thermal control devices for a wake radiator. A heat pipe thermal model was created based on the non-regular cross section applying the method of thermal capacitor-resistor network. After clarifying the thermal network of the heat pipe, No.21 and No.22 heat pipes served as examples to illustrate the thermal analysis of heat transport capacity in two orbital thermal boundary conditions, that is, the nominal operation condition at the worst hot case and the process from start-up to nominal operation at the worst cold case. The analysis results were finally compared with the heat pipe transport limit data provided by the Spanish heat pipe company IberEspacio. Results show that all the embedded wake radiator heat pipes can work reliably within their respective transport limit. The maximum heat pipe transport capacities at a worst cold and the worst hot cases are 74.9WM at the working temperature of 41.3℃ and 69.6WM at -9.3℃.

    Numerical simulation of the flow field in a stirred tank with apendulum agitator

    YANG Feng-ling,ZHOU Shen-jie,ZHANG Cui-xun
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(5):  46-49 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 410 )   PDF (1250KB) ( 1562 )   Save
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    The flow field has great influences on the mixing efficiency of stirred equipment. A new kind of pendulum agitator was studied, and some complements were obtained by the application of FLUENT software. A standard k-ε turbulent model was used to predict the flow field, and the dynamic——mesh technique was applied to regulate the motion of the impeller. The simulation results show that the flow field generated by the pendulum agitator is highly complicated turbulence. The flow is mainly tangential and radial, which indicates that a reciprocating stirrer is a kind of radial flow stirrer. The velocity of the flow field in the upper zone of the tank is on average higher than that of the lower zone, which is dominated by tangential flow. The flow is mainly radial near the bottom of the tank.
    Dynamic simulation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells
    WANG Zhen,KANG Xing-na,HAN Ji-tian,YU Ze-ting,ZHA Li-quan
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(5):  50-56 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 469 )   PDF (868KB) ( 1222 )   Save
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    An approach was presented for the dynamic simulation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) by extending the wellestablished steadystate empirical model of PEMFC. Detailed simulation was conducted by employing the Matlab-SIMULINK to evaluate the effect of the operating parameters on the dynamic output performance of PEMFC. This simulation methodology will be useful for the dynamic performance analysis, optimal design and automatic control of PEMFC systems.
    A product life cycle assessment model based on AHP methodology in support of green design
    LI Fang-yi,LI Jian-feng,DUAN Guang-hong,LI Jian-zhi
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(5):  57-61 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 436 )   PDF (1524KB) ( 1738 )   Save
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    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an important technology in carrying out green design and manufacturing, which is the basis of any LCA methodology. First, an analytic hierarchy process life cycle environmental impact assessment model was proposed under the framework of ISO14000. Some characteristics of this model, such as flexibility, definiteness, and transparency were discussed. Then, its application process was presented. Finally, a case study was used to illustrate the application of this method.
    Trajectory planning for an air-based interceptor using a perturbation atmosphere model
    WANG Ping,PAN Wei
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(5):  62-66 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 413 )   PDF (596KB) ( 1424 )   Save
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    Aiming at enemy targets in low earth orbit, a more accurate trajectory planning method used for air-based interceptors was put forward. Considering the system perturbation of the atmosphere’s density and wind field, the optimal control model of a finite-thrust interceptor was derived. This model was resolved by the direct collocation method and SQP, which led to a more accurate trajectory of the interceptor. Results of a simulation study show the effectiveness of this proposed trajectory planning method.
    The order arrangement optimization of an automated sorting system with the ability of order accumulation
    ZHANG Yi-gong,WU Yao-hua
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(5):  67-71 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 472 )   PDF (629KB) ( 2085 )   Save
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    The modern automated sorting systems widely adopt the strategy of zone picking and order accumulation, where the order arrangement optimization problem exists. A reasonable order accumulation method was first presented to solve this problem, which can bring forward the start time of each order picking and transform it to the compression of goods during order accumulation. This method not only can reduce the total picking time of orders, but also can avoid the conflict of goods during order accumulation. As the sequence of order picking influences the start time of each order picking and the total picking time, a model was established for an order arrangement optimization problem, which can be referred to a traveling salesman problem (TSP). These orders can be seen as the cities to travel in TSP, and each order’s picking time affected by order sequence can be seen as the distance between cities. The target is to find the least total picking time by means of optimizing the order sequence. A maxmin ant system algorithm was utilized to solve the model. The simulation result shows an obvious improvement of picking efficiency of the automated sorting system after order arrangement optimization.
    Study on inverse kinematics of a robot based on an ant colony-neural network algorithm
    MEI Hong,WANG Yong,ZHAO Rong-qi
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(5):  72-76 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 489 )   PDF (495KB) ( 1647 )   Save
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    A new way to build a model of inverse kinematics of a robot was proposed. A neural network was used to express the nonlinear function between input and output of the inverse kinematics of the robot. Then an ant colony algorithm was used to learn neural network. Because an ant colony algorithm was used for discrete optimization, the basic ant colony algorithm was modified. The modified ant colony algorithm consists of global search, local search and definite search. It was used as a new way to learn a neural network. This new way has the merits of both the ant colony algorithm and neural network. Its validity was proved by an example. Both speed and precision were improved.

    The water environmental capacity and the maximal permitted discharge amount of rivers in Shandong Province

    MU Jin-bo,ZHEN Wen-dong,WANG Zhong-xun,ZHANG Hong-xiu,CHENG Lei,DU Jin-hui
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(5):  77-81 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 519 )   PDF (301KB) ( 1969 )   Save
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    The definition and classification of water environmental capacity were standardized, the river water environmental capacity models, water resources and water environmental condition in Shandong Province were established according to the characteristics of hydrology. The computational procedures and methods for water environmental capacity adapted to rivers in north China were constructed, and the corresponding relation among the water functional zone, the discharge inlets to the river and point source discharge outlets were found. The estimation method for converting the water environmental capacity in waters into the maximal permitted discharge amount on land was put forward. The water environmental capacity and maximal permitted discharge amount meeting the condition of the water functional zone were calculated for 239 rivers and 547 water functional zones in Shandong Province, and thus the total amount control scheme of water pollutants was provided with a scientific basis.
    The relationship of spring protection and transformation pattern between
    precipitation groundwater and surface water in the Jinan spring region
    MENG Qing-bin,XING Li-ting,TENG Zhao-xia
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(5):  82-87 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 496 )   PDF (1281KB) ( 1838 )   Save
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    The dynamic characteristics of karst water in Jinan were analyzed, and the invert model between precipitation water, surface water and ground water was divided. The main reasons of the seeping capacity retrogression and the springs dry-up were the diminishing of watercourse flux supply from the indirect supply region, watercourse dry-up in the direct supply region, and land rigidification in suburbs. Finally, the safeguard on spring protection was put forth, such as groundwater rechargeutilizing floodwater in the direct supply region, controling suburb expansion and optimizing distribution of the water field.
    Preparation of granulating modified-bentonites and its decoloration performances to dyes
    YUAN Ai-juan,YUE Qin-yan,LI Qian,GAO Bao-yu,LI Jing
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(5):  88-93 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 428 )   PDF (679KB) ( 1594 )   Save
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    By using coal as the porecausing agent and amylum as the crossinglinking agent, a series of bentonite granules were prepared. Then, the raw bentonite granules were modified by EPI-DMA to obtain optimum properties of adsorption. The orthogonal test optimization method qualified the feasible molding condition, of which the quality ratio was 40∶10∶1 and was calcined at 600℃ for 6 hours. The concentration of EPI-DMA, reaction time, temperature and pH value were considered for bentonite granule modification. The results showed that modified bentonite granules with better adsorption ability were manufactured by reacting at 40℃ for 4 hours with the EPI-DMA concentration of 50g·L-1. The BET surface area analysis technique was used to qualify the properties of the bentonite granule samples.
    The evaluation of water eco-environmental carrying capacity in Shandong Province
    WANG Jun-ying,DU Jin-hui,LV Pei-ru,ZHANG Yuan,MU Jin-bo
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(5):  94-98 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 577 )   PDF (277KB) ( 1910 )   Save
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    Water eco-environmental carrying capacity can be taken as a criterion for judging the harmonious extent among regional economy, society and water environment. The evaluation index system of water eco-environmental carrying capacity was established based on the eco-environmental water demand and water environmental capacity, and the water eco-environmental carrying capacity in Shandong Province was evaluated using single index. The method for the comprehensive evaluation of water eco-environmental carrying capacity was established and the water eco-environmental carrying capacity in Shandong Province from 2000 to 2005 was synthetically evaluated. The result of this research provided the scientific basis for decision-making departments to supervise the management of the water environment and the protection of water resources, and for the construction of an ecological province in Shandong Province.
    Powder sputter metal oxide gas thin film and sensorsⅠ. Powder sputter metal oxide gas thin film
    TIAN Fang,GUO Xiao-li,ZHANG Ying-xin,WANG Qian,QIU Nan-wan
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(5):  99-101 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 496 )   PDF (239KB) ( 1929 )   Save
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    The technique of powder sputter was developed, and the importance of this technique for fabricating a stable film gas sensor was put forth. The relation between the ratio of impurity in powder and in film, the range of deposition impurity x% for optimum sensitivity with film thickness, the optimum film thickness l* for some thin film, and the rule for response time varies with film thickness were given.

    Preparation of biomimetic nanograde hydroxyapatite in simulated body fluid
    ZHANG Ai-juan
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(5):  102-106 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 580 )   PDF (875KB) ( 3095 )   Save
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    Nanograde hydroxyapatite(HAP)powders were synthesized through the reaction between Ca(NO3)2 and Na3PO4 in simulated body fluid(SBF). The mass phase composition, chemical composition, micromorphology and the bioactivity of the obtained HAP were studied by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic absorption spectrometry. The Ca/P molar ratio of HAP was obtained by a chemical method. The results indicate that the synthesized HAP is a pinlike shape close to natural bone with 60~70?nm length, 10~20nm width, poor crystal structure and contains Na+ and CO2-3. The synthesized HAP powders have a good ability for inducing Ca and P deposition.
    Study on extraction technology of chitin and chitosan from Tenebrio molitor
    DOU Zhen-wei,LIU Bao*,MENG Xian-wu
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(5):  107-112 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 577 )   PDF (449KB) ( 1964 )   Save
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    With the powder of microwave dried Tenebrio molitor as starting material, the extraction technology of chitin and chitosan was studied by adopting soxlet extraction method to extract oil, using the acid leaching method to remove ash, sodium hydroxide solution to remove protein, sodium hypochlorite to decolorize samples, and NaOH solution to deacetylate the product. The effects of different extraction conditions on residual protein content, ash content, degree of deacetylation and viscosity of chitin and chitosan were systematically analyzed. The optimum conditions were obtained.
    Corrosion resistance properties in seawater of sintering Al2O3 ceramics
    LIU Xue-wen,SHI Yuan-chang,BAI Qi-ya
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(5):  113-116 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 413 )   PDF (621KB) ( 1592 )   Save
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    In a seawater system, the corrosion resistance characteristic of sintering Al2O3 ceramics, a kind of amphoteric oxide, was investigated by the measurements of SEM, pore size distribution, porosity and bending strength, and the SEM method and so on. The results indicated that the sintering Al2O3 ceramics display excellent corrosion resistance properties, which had no corrosion reaction in about one year.
    Detection methods of oxygen content and an application of the catalysts for synthesizing diamonds in quality control
    TIAN Bin,XU Bin,LI He-sheng
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(5):  117-120 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 461 )   PDF (299KB) ( 1489 )   Save
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    As an important method of diamond synthesis at HPHT, catalyst alternately stacked with graphite was widely used in practical production. The existence of oxygen in catalysts had very important effects on the nucleation and quality of the diamond, especially for iron-based alloy catalyst. The precise detection of the oxygen content was basic for illustrating the oxygen effectina mechanism on the nucleation and quality of the diamond. Some common detection methods of the oxygen content were dealt with and compared. At the same time, the quantitative detection of the oxygen content in the catalyst used in IRO-II and change of oxygen content during catalyst preparation were also discussed.
    A de-noising method for laser ultrasonic signal based on EMD
    SUN Wei-feng,PENG Yu-hua,XU Jian-hua
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(5):  121-126 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 566 )   PDF (1561KB) ( 1762 )   Save
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    Based on the criterion of consecutive mean square error, a de-noising method for laser ultrasonic signals based on empirical mode decomposition(EMD) was proposed. This method can divide the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) derived from EMD into signal dominant modes and noise dominant modes, then the modes reflecting the important structures of a signal were combined together to form partially reconstructed de-noised signal. Simulations were conducted for simulated signals and a real laser ultrasonic signal using this method. Experimental results indicate that this method can efficiently and adaptively remove noise, and this method can not be affected by subjective parameters.