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Table of Content

      
    16 December 2008
    Volume 38 Issue 6
    Articles
    Possibility analysis on chemical explosion of material causing urea  reactor cylinder fracture
    LI Meng-li, WANG Wei-qiang ,XU Shu-gen , SONG Ming-da
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(6):  1-6. 
    Abstract ( 424 )   PDF (850KB) ( 1430 )   Save
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    Two urea reactor cylinders  seriously fractured in 1995 and 2005 in China. The possibility analysis of chemical explosion in the reactor and some concrete calculation were given, and then compared with the damage of the actual failure. It indicated that the energy generated from the chemical explosion of material in the reactor could not cause a serious fracture of the two urea reactors and great damage to the surroundings. Therefore, the cause of the urea reactor fracture was not a chemical explosion but boiling liquid expanding to vapor explosion.

    Unsteady turbulent simulation of counter-rotating axial flow fan and the analysis of pressure in the whole passage
    ZHANG Yong-chao,CHEN Qing-guang,WANG Wei-bin,ZHAN Jin-ling,LIU Shao-he
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(6):  7-10. 
    Abstract ( 359 )   PDF (1140KB) ( 1212 )   Save
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    A three-dimensional unsteady flow was simulated using the Realiable k-ε turbulence model in full flow passage of a counter-rotating axial flow fan. Then, the frequency domain distributing of pressure pulsation was predicted at positions in two pairs of move-move interfaces and a pair of move-stator interfaces a  round the fore and after impellers. The spread and diversification rule of pressure pulsation along the radial direction of the interfaces was also analyzed. The simulation result indicated that the impact to the pressure pulsation a round impellers of the second impeller is much stronger than the first one. The results can be used as a reference of the numerical study on the aerodynamic noise field of axial flow fans.

    The fluid-strusture interaction features of control valve
    SHANG Cui-xia,WANG Yong,XIE Yu-dong
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(6):  11-14. 
    Abstract ( 406 )   PDF (648KB) ( 2298 )   Save
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    The plug molded line equation plays an important part in the pressure drop of the control valve. Based on the finite element analysis software ANSYS, a control valve simulation model was established, the plugs with different molded lines were analyzed, and the effects of different molded lines on the pressure drop were presented. At the same time, the stress analysis of the control valve body was shown by considering the fluid-structure interaction. This study provides theoretical guidance for shortening the optimization design cycle of the control valve.

    Reactive power optimization based on particle swarm optimization and simulated annealing cooperative algorithm
    WANG Zhen-shu,LI Lin-chuan,LI Bo
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(6):  15-20. 
    Abstract ( 339 )   PDF (435KB) ( 1993 )   Save
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    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) and simulated annealing algorithm (SA) have several problems when they are used for power system reactive optimization. A novel cooperative algorithm based on PSO and simulated SA was presented  according to the characteristics of PSO and SA. The new method efficiently combines PSO and SA and takes full advantage of the easily implementing performance and fast convergence performance of PSO and global convergence performance of SA to make them cooperate to find the best solution. The simulation results of the IEEE 14, 57,118 systems demonstrated that the proposed cooperative algorithm  can be  easily realized with high efficiency and can obtain higher quality solutions than PSO or SA alone.

    voltage  regulation research of an improved genetic algorithm considering infeasidering infeasibility degree
    WANG Jian, ZHANG Shan
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(6):  21-24. 
    Abstract ( 347 )   PDF (303KB) ( 1108 )   Save
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    Voltage quality is the core factor of safe and economic operation in power systems, and reasonable measures are needed for voltage regulation. The infeasibility degree was introduced into the mathematical model of voltage regulation, which can deal with the constraints of the model. In addition, an improved genetic algorithm was used to solve the voltage regulation problem. The infeasibility degree can extend the search scope of the genetic algorithm and enhance the ability of getting the optimal solutions. The results of a practice power system demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively balance the pressure between the optimization and the constraints of the objective function, and improve the voltage quality of power systems.

    The advanced thermal rating of power system and its application
    ZHANG Hui,WANG Meng-xia, HAN Xue-shan
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(6):  25-29. 
    Abstract ( 381 )   PDF (455KB) ( 1386 )   Save
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    Current-carrying capacity of transmission lines obtained by setting conservative weather conditions limits the exertion of line heat capacity most of the time. Based on the heat balance equation that reflects the coordination relationship between heat and electricity, the heat capacity of transmission lines was reevaluated from the angle of real-time operation, and the definitions of static thermal rating and dynamic thermal rating were presented. From the standpoint that heat capacity is determined by the conductor temperature and the research clue that the temperature and power system operation dispatch are interlinked, a new concept of advanced thermal rating was proposed and its application foreground was expatiated by examples of advanced dispatch and security dispatch.  The research can provide a foundation for the in-depth research of electro-thermal coordination in dispatch operation of power systems.

    Ultrasonic assisted ECM in pure water
    BAO Huai-qian,XU Jia-wen,WANG Chang-tian
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(6):  30-32. 
    Abstract ( 363 )   PDF (599KB) ( 1558 )   Save
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    Electrochemical machining (ECM) can be used to achieve a desired workpiece surface. This machining method can be applied in principle to micromachining, precision finishing, and even to nano-fabrication. In order to develop green manufacturing and microfabrication, an innovative micro-electrochemical machining methodthe electrochemical machining in pure water (PWECM) was studied. Water dissociation accelerated with the function of a cation exchange membrane and an increase in current density. The ultrasonic vibration assistant was applied to PW-ECM. Process stability was ensured for reaction products from the zone of machining. In addition, anodic films were removed by electrolyte vibrating impact and cavitating for minus press after using the ultrasonic vibration.

    A method of fractal artistic pattern generation based on a genetic algorithm
    LI Jie ,LIU Hong
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(6):  33-36. 
    Abstract ( 438 )   PDF (432KB) ( 1760 )   Save
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    Based on the combination of a genetic algorithm and the fractal artistic design, a new method of fractal pattern generation based on a genetic algorithm was proposed. In this method, the binary tree structure  was used as the expression of the iterated functions of fractal pattern, and genetic operations were operated on the iterated functions with tree structure to produce new offspring. This method is helpful in meeting the demands of design. The feasibility of this algorithm was also validated by experiments.

    Traffic  prediction based on the pheromone model  
    JIANG Qun ,WANG Hua-qiu,ZHANG Gang-jian,JIANG Peng
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(6):  37-40. 
    Abstract ( 343 )   PDF (299KB) ( 1192 )   Save
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    It is hard to precisely collect data of traffic congestion,  and adequately collect data of traffic accidents. Therefore, the information used to predict traffic congestion and accident is very weak.  A traffic prediction method was proposed, which uses sensors and mechanism of insects passing information rather than data collection and analysis. The simulation results show that the pheromone prediction method has higher accuracy than the moving average.

    A study of computing object-oriented program slicing  technology
    DU Lin, JIANG Hai-yan
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(6):  41-47. 
    Abstract ( 343 )   PDF (310KB) ( 2112 )   Save
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    A new object-oriented program slicing method was presented, which combines ripple effect analysis and system dependency graph. This method can be used to analyze the semantic relations in object-oriented program units by ripple effect analysis, and the control dependency and data dependency by use of system dependency graph. The ripple effect in an object-oriented program was studied. The coarse-grained signification was extended to a larger level and integrated slicing, and the ripple effect analysis through transforming results of ripple effect was extended to the sentence level. The objectoriented program system dependency graph was constructed by the class graph and the modifying traditional system dependency graph. The algorithms for analyzing ripple effect, constructing system dependency graph and computing slicing were designed. In addition, the complexity degrees of the algorithms were discussed.

    Application of time-temperature superposition theory in explosive decomposition study
    SHI Cheng-ying, MEI Jun-jian, LI Qiang
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(6):  48-50. 
    Abstract ( 355 )   PDF (211KB) ( 1171 )   Save
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    Aimed at the difficulty in explosive decomposition study, time-temperaturesuperposition theory was presented, which can change a study under normal temperature into a study under high temperature. With the data of certain explosive decomposition experiments, its decomposition quantity under 20℃ in twenty years approximately equals to that under 48.2℃ in one year. Finally this theory was validated by explosive decomposition kinetics.

    Research and appication on the supporting technology of a new high-prestressed bolt
    LI Hai-Yan, LI Wei, LI Shu-Cai, LIU Yu-Ping, GAO Si-Min
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(6):  51-54. 
    Abstract ( 392 )   PDF (526KB) ( 1943 )   Save
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    The mechanism of jointly deformation-failures between roadway surrounding rock and bolt-support system were studied and summarized. A new steelstrand bolt with high pretension stress was developed in this experiment. This kind of bolt can provide high pre-stress and effectively control the harmful deformation of surrounding rock. In addition, the synchronous deformation between the bolt and rock was achieved, and the self-support power of the bolt can be effectually exerted. At the same time, the prestressed steel-strand bolt is difficult to  be made flexible after being fixed, and is less influenced by shock wave. It was shown that this steel-strand bolt is technically feasible for supporting in roadway and can reduce the cost of support in the same strength condition. It also has the vale of having a wide spread in engineering application as a supporting-system to soft rock in deep mines.

    A  double hardening constitutive model for fine sands based on both the dilatancy feature and strain softening
    ZHANG Hong-Bo, HUANG Mao-Song, SONG Xiu-Guang
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(6):  55-60. 
    Abstract ( 365 )   PDF (335KB) ( 1267 )   Save
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    Aiming at the characteristic of Shanghai fine sands for which a unique critical state line does not exist, the traditional models for sands were modified and a constitutive model for fine sands was developed which can describe both dilatancy feature and strain softening reasonably. The two yielding surfaces can individually reflect shear deformation and compression deformation. The traditional dilatancy equation of Cam-clay model was modified and the relativity between  the phase transformation stress ratio and initial effective pressure was considered. In order to describe the characteristic of strain softening, a strain softening equation using the stress ratio at steady state and peak state was formulated, which can preferably reflect strain softening of fine sands. The model was verified by several test results of Shanghai fine sands. The good predictions show the rationality and validity of the proposed model.

    Influence of double diffusion effects on the convective diffusion of indoor VOCs
    GENG Wen-Guang, CHEN Bao-Ming, TIAN Mao-Cheng, LIU Fang
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(6):  61-64. 
    Abstract ( 403 )   PDF (784KB) ( 1587 )   Save
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    In order to find the distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in buildings, based on the principle of thermodynamics of irreversible processes and the double diffusion effects, a mathematical model was developed based on the principle of thermodynamics of irreversible processes and the doublediffusion effects, to effectively analyze the natural convective heat and mass transfer in the presence of three physical (temperature, VOCs and humidity concentration) gradients, and the mathematic model was numerically solved by the FEM method. The soret effect and Dufour effect on the convective diffusion of VOCs in indoor surroundings was specially investigated. The average Sherwood number was graphically presented with various conditions.

    Study of the relationship between common and Low-E double glazing glass fenestrations and indoor thermal and daylight environments
    CHU Hong-liang, ZHENG Rong-jin, ZHANG Jian-gao, YIN-Fan, FU Li-xia
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(6):  65-69. 
    Abstract ( 351 )   PDF (579KB) ( 1443 )   Save
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    The influence of common and Low-E double glazing glass fenestrations on indoor thermal and daylight environments was investigated in two test rooms in the summer in Hangzhou, China. The indoor air temperature, PMV-PPD, and illumination of the test rooms were measured. The results show that the percentage of total time for PMV values within -0.7~0.7 in the test rooms with common and Low-E double glazing glass were about 50% and 72%, and the latter was much better than the former. The illumination was also beyond 110 lx on a work plane surface, which satisfied the minimum requirement of daylight for office buildings in China.

    The BOM modeling based on the polychromatic graph
    YAN Chong-jing, LIAO Wen-he, GUO Yu, CHENG Xiao-sheng
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(6):  70-75. 
    Abstract ( 406 )   PDF (311KB) ( 1112 )   Save
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    It is hard to keep data consistency between various BOMs, which are from different departments. A polychromatic graph based BOM model was presented to decrease errors during the delivering of data. Benefiting from the polychromatic character of the graph, the model can easily be transformed to different application BOMs. The structure relation, semantic relation and general relation between the presented BOM model and application BOMs were analyzed. The effectiveness of this approach was validated for the  project application.

    Study of manganese dioxide catalytic oxidation with chlorine dioxide as an oxidant of simulated wastewater containing naphthol green B
    LI Wen-jing, SHI Lai-shun, LIU Yan-pu, YU Feng-jun, DONG Yan-yan
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(6):  76-81. 
    Abstract ( 418 )   PDF (921KB) ( 1894 )   Save
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    The direct oxidation and catalytic oxidation of simulated wastewater containing naphthol green B with chlorine dioxide as an oxidant were studied. When the wastewater's COD was 1533mg/L, the optimum pH value was 1.2, the dosage of chlorine dioxide was 1500mg/L after reacting for 60min and the COD removal efficiency and the decolor efficiency were 45.3% and 92.5%, respectively. The COD removal efficiency and decolor efficiency were respectively 70.9% and 96.8%, when the wastewater's COD was 1481mg/L, the optimum pH value was 1.2, the dosage of chlorine dioxide was 1000mg/L, and the dosage of MnO2-SiO2 catalyst was 5g after reacting for 30min. The BOD5/CODcr of original wastewater improved from 0.22 to 0.71. The ability to biologically treat the difficult degradation wastewater improved. The catalyst did not lose activity when used nine times. The IR spectra indicated that the active ingredient of the manganese dioxide was linked with silicone by a chemical bond, not merely mechanical blending.

    Study of the synthesis and optical and electrical properties of  Ga-doped ZnO nanopowders
    XU Run-chun,LV Wei,XU Qing
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(6):  82-86. 
    Abstract ( 365 )   PDF (709KB) ( 2524 )   Save
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    Ga-doped ZnO nanopowders were obtained from zinc precursor solutions with different Ga concentrations via a simple solvo-thermal route. The optical and electrical properties of the obtained nanopowders have been investigated by XRD, TEM, XPS, PL and Hall effect measurement system (HES). The influence of Ga concentration in zinc precursor solutions on the optical and electrical properties of the product was investigated.

    Study  of surface modification of hydroxyapatite powers by ions of ferrous iron
    LI Cheng-feng
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(6):  87-90. 
    Abstract ( 361 )   PDF (311KB) ( 1403 )   Save
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    Due to its specific composition and microstructure, surface modification of hydroxyapatite (HA) was expected with the entry of a metal ion. In this study, HA powders were synthesized and immersed in solutions containing ions of ferrous iron. Ion exchange between Ca2+ and Fe2+ with a smaller ionic radius were characterized and investigated. This modification resulted in variation of surface charges of HA particles, frequencies of OH and PO4 stretching vibration, as well as lattice spaces of (00l) planes. Also, the chemical bond between HA powders and anionic electrolyte in solutions containing sodium oleate became weak after modification of HA surface by Fe2+ . The purpose of the present work is stimulating the substitution of Ca2+ ions in bones and teeth by ions of ferrous iron in circulatory systems of human beings.

    Action of rolling on mechanical energy aided aluminizing progresses
    DONG Rui-hua, LI Mu-sen, WANG Xiu-chun, SUN Xi-tai
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(6):  91-94. 
    Abstract ( 307 )   PDF (889KB) ( 1443 )   Save
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    Combining heat and kinetic energy together, mechanical energy aided aluminizing processes can decrease heating temperature and reduce heating time. This technique could form a 100μm thickness aluminized layer on surface of steel samples only by treatment at 600℃ for 180 min. Experimental results showed that rolling in the energy aided aluminizing increased the probabilities of contacts between the aluminizing agent and the sample surface, and between ingredients in the aluminizing agent. The friction between the grain and the sample could clean the surface of the samples, increase the surface activity, and accelerate the reaction and nucleation rate of Al atoms on the surface. The diffusion layers could be formed at a lower temperature due to the diffusion active energy decrease resulting from production of a great deal of crystal defects by shocking the grain agents.

    Stimulation of tar removal from biomass gas using ASPEN PLUS
    XIONG Li-jun, ZHANG Zhong-cheng
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(6):  95-98. 
    Abstract ( 351 )   PDF (565KB) ( 1438 )   Save
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     Biomass tar contained in biomass gas is still an obstacle in biomass thermo-chemical conversion technology. The basic process of tar removal by solvents was given. ASPEN PLUS, one of the most famous softwares of chemical engineering, was used to stimulate the process. The measures to increase the rate of tar removal were obtained by analyzing the influence of technological factors such as flux and temperature, which were suitable for practical productions.

    Synthesis and application of  hydrophobically  associating  cationic  polyacrylamide    
    LI Chun-xiao, YUE Qin-yan, LU Lei, GAO Bao-yu, YANG Zhong-lian, SI Xiao-hui, NI Shou-qing, WANG Yuan-fang
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(6):  99-104. 
    Abstract ( 352 )   PDF (349KB) ( 1581 )   Save
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     A series of hydrophobically associating cationic copolymers, poly(AM-DMDAAC-BA), were synthesized with acrylamide (AM), dimethyldiallyammonium chloride (DMDAAC) and butylacrylate (BA) by the micellar free radical copolymerization technique. Copolymerization was initiated by a complex initiation system, which was composed of a redox initiator (K2S2O8-Na2S2O3) and thermal decomposition initiator azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN). The effects of synthesis conditions, such as various initiation systems, initiator concentration, monomer ratio, surfactant concentration and urea concentration on properties of polymers were studied. The results showed that conversion and molecular weight of polymer were increased with the use of the initiation system. The optimum conditions of copolymerization were as follows: the molar ratio of AM, DMDAAC and BA was 68.6∶29.4∶ 2.0, respectively and the percentages of initiator, surfactant and urea by weight in the monomers were 0.15%, 2.0% and 2.5%, respectively. Infrared spectrogram of the copolymers proved the formation of hydrophobically associating cationic copolymers. The results of coagulation performance experiments indicated that the oil removal rate was significantly improved by using P(AM-DMDAAC-BA).

    Cost  contract  incentives and  analysis for  the  reverse  supply chain of  remanufacturing  based  on  JIT
    HUANG Ling, DA Qing-li
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(6):  105-111. 
    Abstract ( 328 )   PDF (511KB) ( 1349 )   Save
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    Incentive mechanisms for the reverse supply chain were studied through the view of the motivation between remanufacturing and callback behaviors. Considering the randomness of recycle response time, variables of penalty cost and bonus were introduced. The way to realize the minimum cost and get expected optimal delivery time and probability by penalty policy and incentive contract for manufacturvs was forecasted and case analysis illuminated the effect that inventory cost parameters impact on contract decision.

    The  application  of  the  C1 natural   neighbor  Galerkin  method  in  the  couple-stress  elasticity   theory
    NIE Zhi-Feng, ZHOU Shen-Jie, WANG Kai, KONG Qing-Li
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(6):  112-117. 
    Abstract ( 321 )   PDF (1371KB) ( 1440 )   Save
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    The C1 interpolant was realized when embedding the non-Sibsonian natural neighbor coordinate in the Bernstein-Bézier surface representation of a cubic simplex. It had quadratic completeness, interpolation to nodal function and nodal gradient values, and can be reduced to a cubic polynomial on the boundary of domain. The essential boundary conditions were directly imposed in a Galerkin scheme for the Toupin-Mindlin couple-stress theory because the  C1 interpolant had the interpolation property for nodal functions and nodal gradient values. The simple shear problem and infinite plate with circular hole under uniaxial tension were analyzed. The numerical solutions agree well with the analytical solutions, which show that the C1 natural neighbor Galerkin method can analyze the couple-stress elasticity theory.

    A  modified  equivalent  strain  energy  density  method
    XU Nan, WANG Sheng-Chun, WANG Xiu-Ye
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(6):  118-120. 
    Abstract ( 360 )   PDF (472KB) ( 1236 )   Save
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    Plastic strain energy density, stored energy and energy dissipation were discussed in the case of cyclic loading. Because plastic strain density was taken into account by the ESED method, the Neuber rule normally overestimates the local strains while the ESED method underestimates the local strain. The result of the modified ESED method is closer to test results and the estimated life is safe for engineering application. The results predicted by the modified ESED rule are in correspondence with those of fatigue experiments.

    Back   regression  analysis  on  the  initial  geostress  field  of  the  Shuangjiangkou  hydropower  station
    LIU Ning, ZHU Wei-Shen, XIN Xiao-Li
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2008, 38(6):  121-126. 
    Abstract ( 323 )   PDF (876KB) ( 1976 )   Save
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    Initial geostress is indispensable to the design and the construction of rock engineering. Based on the measured data of geostress and engineeringgeological conditions in the region of the Shuangjiangkou hydropower station, a geological model was developed to express the physiognomy of the research area and rock mass structure. The established 3D simplified geological model was calculated by fast Lagrangian analysis for the Continuum of FLAC3D. A multivariate regression model was established between the actually measured and corresponding calculated results of geostresses. According to multiple regression analysis, the optimum regression coefficient can be received. Through the comparison between computed and measured geostress values of measuring points, it was found that they are similar in values and directions,which suggests the accuracy and reasonability of the geostress field. The results offer reasonable geostress field for excavating simulation and analysis of the stability of the underground workshop of the Shuangjingkou hydropower station.