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Table of Content

    Machine Learning & Data Mining
    Four-wing hyperchaotic system synchronization and its secure video communication based on FPGA
    Wei XUE,Dongcheng TAN,Mei ZHANG,Shilong LIU
    Journal of Shandong University(Engineering Science). 2019, 49(3):  1-7.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1672-3961.0.2017.601
    Abstract ( 736 )   HTML ( 212 )   PDF (4746KB) ( 277 )   Save
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    A four-wing generalized augmented Lü hyperchaotic system was analyzed, and the self-synchronization of the hyperchaotic system was realized by the method of nonlinear synchronous control. The correctness and validity of the nonlinear synchronous controller were theoretically analyzed. The design and implementation of FPGA hardware circuit for the nonlinear synchronous control hyperchaotic system were carried out. The results of hardware test were consistent with those of numerical simulation and theoretical analysis. A chaotic masking secure video communication scheme of the hyperchaotic system based on nonlinear synchronization was proposed, and the FPGA hardware experiment of the secure communication scheme was carried out. The FPGA hardware test results showed that the secure communication scheme was effective and feasible, and had a good security.

    Support vector regression algorithm based on kernel similarity reduced strategy
    Yingda LI,Zongxia XIE
    Journal of Shandong University(Engineering Science). 2019, 49(3):  8-14.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1672-3961.0.2017.417
    Abstract ( 640 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (1343KB) ( 189 )   Save
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    With the increase of iterations, SGD was susceptible to the curse of kernelization. We introduced the kernel similarity to remove the redundant SVs called SVs-reduced strategy (SRS) for improving the efficiency of SGD in large scale non-linear modeling. At each iteration in SGD, the similarities between a new sample and the recorded SVs were computed if the new sample was a SV. If the similarity was larger than a threshold, this SV was not saved. Experimental results on UCI, LIBSVM and Wind-speed datasets demonstrated that the proposed SRS could be used to solve large-scale non-linear SVR comparing with some state-of-the-art algorithms.

    Research and application of marine metadata based on life cycle model
    Yan WANG,Xiaojing SHEN
    Journal of Shandong University(Engineering Science). 2019, 49(3):  15-21.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1672-3961.0.2018.179
    Abstract ( 622 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (2229KB) ( 214 )   Save
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    This paper first analyzed the existing metadata standard and its application in the marine field, and then put forward a marine metadata standard framework. With the framwork a marine metadata management model based on the life cycle was proposed and applicated in the integrated management platform of ocean data.

    A novel double strategies evolutionary fruit fly optimization algorithm
    Bo FANG,Hongmei CHEN
    Journal of Shandong University(Engineering Science). 2019, 49(3):  22-31.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1672-3961.0.2017.418
    Abstract ( 726 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (2094KB) ( 140 )   Save
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    The problem of premature convergence caused by trapping into local optimum, which resulted form the fact that all the individuals were only attracted by the best one in the standard fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA), was common. In order to overcome this demerit, a novel double strategies evolutionary fruit fly optimization algorithm (DSEFOA) was proposed. The whole group was divided into elite subgroup and ordinary subgroup dynamically based on a proposed new group partitioning strategy. Then an improved searching method with chaotic variable was used in the elite subgroup to improve the individual's local searching capability. Meanwhile, an improved standard FOA-based random searching method with weighting factors was used in the ordinary subgroup to enhance its global searching capability, as well accelerated the convergence. The searching capability of both superior and inferior individuals could be effectively improved in DSEFOA by using different strategies on different evolutionary levels of these individuals. The experimental results showed that DSEFOA had better optimization performance than the standard FOA.

    A method of multi-sensor data fusion under the complicated environment
    Mingming TIAN,Jihua YE,Shimin WANG,Yejing WAN
    Journal of Shandong University(Engineering Science). 2019, 49(3):  32-38.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1672-3961.0.2017.426
    Abstract ( 996 )   HTML ( 87 )   PDF (1038KB) ( 221 )   Save
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    The existing methods do not use the reliability information of the source of evidence data collection, a multi-sensor data fusion algorithm based on the temperature data in complex environment was proposed. It proceeded from the sensor data source, analyzed the evidence source information, evaluated the confidence measure, and revised the conflict evidence with the confidence measure. In the evidence fusion moment, we used iterative fusion method to revise and fusion evidence until the fusion result convergence. Compared with other fusion methods, this method was effective and had better results in the question of evidence conflict.

    Control Science & Engineering
    Hydraulic turbine operation status detection based on LSTM network prediction
    Chang CHEN,Xiaolei LI,Weiyu CUI
    Journal of Shandong University(Engineering Science). 2019, 49(3):  39-46.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1672-3961.0.2018.240
    Abstract ( 853 )   HTML ( 17 )   PDF (3204KB) ( 352 )   Save
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    Long short-term memory (LSTM) networks was adapted to make accurate prediction of the unit's operation status. The streaming monitoring data of the turbine unit was standardized, and the sliding window technology was used to convert the data into the training data set and test data set for LSTM network training. The LSTM prediction model structure was given, and the structure of LSTM prediction model was fine-tuned, such as the number of network layers and the number of hidden layer neurons. The time series data prediction model of the hydro turbine unit was established. The experimental analysis proved that the multi-measurement-based LSTM network prediction model had higher prediction accuracy than other models, which calculated the health deviation based on the improved radar image analysis method and successfully detected the abnormality of the No. 5 hydraulic turbine unit of a hydropower plant at the end of May, and verified the validity of the model.

    Machine Learning & Data Mining
    Robust adaptive self-organizing neuro-fuzzy tracking control of UUV with unknown dead-zone nonlinearity
    Chuan MA,Yancheng LIU,Siyuan LIU,Qinjin ZHANG
    Journal of Shandong University(Engineering Science). 2019, 49(3):  47-56.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1672-3961.0.2018.385
    Abstract ( 569 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (5339KB) ( 179 )   Save
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    A robust adaptive self-organizing neuro-fuzzy control scheme for trajectory tracking of unmanned underwater vehicle with uncertainties and unknown dead-zone nonlinearity was proposed. The scheme adopted a novel sliding mode reaching law control framework and a self-organizing neuro-fuzzy network approximator to estimate the unknown dynamic and self-adaptive the parameter. The robust controller was employed to provide the finite L2-gain property to cope with reconstruction errors. Lyapunov stability theory analysis showed that tracking errors and their derivatives were stable and all signals in the closed-loop system were bounded. Comparative simulation results demonstrated the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed scheme, which could be a reference for the design of unmanned underwater vehicle.

    Civil Engineering
    The interlaminar shear rule between flexible base and semi-rigid base
    Zhizhong ZHAO,Hongzhe LIU,Guiqiang LIU,Zhenyu YANG
    Journal of Shandong University(Engineering Science). 2019, 49(3):  57-62.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1672-3961.0.2017.436
    Abstract ( 828 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (2628KB) ( 199 )   Save
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    ATB-25 asphalt mixture and cement stabilized macadam were taken to shape composite specimen, the amount of asphalt and chip in the composite specimen layer was controlled. The develop shear apparatus was used to carry out shear strength test, the influence factors and change rules of interlaminar shear strength were analyzed based on the test results. Different test schemes were worked out by setting up the test temperature and the amount of chip and asphalt. The test results showed that the temperature was the most influencing factor on the shear strength of the layer, when the test temperature increased from 5 ℃ to 35 ℃, the maximum shear stress decreased from 1.36 MPa to 0.16 MPa. The second influencing factor was the amount of asphalt, the aggregate content had the least influence, and the optimum asphalt content was different due to the different temperature. Therefore, in practical engineering, the amount of asphalt and gravel should be considered in combination with the location. The asphalt content in high temperature area should be slightly less than in the low temperature area. The aggregate content should be strictly controlled to improve the quality of interlayer connection and define the laws of interlaminar shear strength and connection.

    Influence rule of foundation pit supporting structure and its adjacent composite foundation distance
    Lianxiang LI,Lu BAI,Tianyu CHEN,Xiangkai JI
    Journal of Shandong University(Engineering Science). 2019, 49(3):  63-72, 79.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1672-3961.0.2018.345
    Abstract ( 663 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (4391KB) ( 467 )   Save
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    Based on the centrifugal test of the close relationship between the composite foundation and the supporting structure, the PLAXIS software was used to establish a numerical model of the foundation pit with a certain distance between the composite foundation and the supporting structure. This model was used to study the influence of the width of the strip on internal force and displacement of the composite foundation and retaining structure. The results showed that the distance law could be divided into three sections: when the width of the soil strip increased from 0 to 6 m, the axial force of the CFG pile and the pile-soil stress ratio increased, and the obstruction effect was obvious. It was advisable to establish a lateral pressure calculation method that considered the lateral stiffness and the obstruction effect to actively control the displacement. When the width of the soil strip was 6 m to 18 m, the axial force of the CFG pile and the pile-soil stress ratio were steadily reduced. When the width of the soil strip was increased to 18 m or more, there was no longer any influence between the new foundation pit and the existing composite foundation. The research results clarified the design direction of foundation pits under different widths of soil and the safety protection focus of similar foundation pit engineering, which laid a foundation for further establishing the design theory of such foundation pits.

    The pretreatment methods of pavement strain signals
    Meng LI,Shaobo JI,Hao WANG,Baoliang LIAO,Wenyang HAN,Jincheng WEI,Jing LIAN,Zhi GE
    Journal of Shandong University(Engineering Science). 2019, 49(3):  73-79.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1672-3961.0.2018.487
    Abstract ( 649 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (5924KB) ( 238 )   Save
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    In order to obtain the interlayer strain condition of pavement and monitor the state of the road in real time, an automatic collection system of unattended interlayer strain signal was developed. A four-axle truck was selected for field test to analyze the characteristics of the collected strain signal, and the zero drift of the measured signal was eliminated by removing the trend term. The S variation method was used to study the distribution of interlayer strain signal in time and frequency domain. Finally, in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of measured road strain signals, low-pass filtering and wavelet filtering methods were used to preprocess the signals. The results showed that the developed system realized the automatic collection of road strain signal. The noise component frequency of the collected pavement interlayer strain signal was not fixed, and the effective component of the road strain signal was mainly the low-frequency signal below 50 Hz. The low-pass filtering method had limitations in processing strain signal, and wavelet filtering method was suitable for the pretreatment of strain signals between pavement layers for its great filtering effect on different types of noise signals.

    Structural design of transitional layer between subgrade and semi-rigid base
    Cong WANG,Lu ZHANG,Xiaoming YI
    Journal of Shandong University(Engineering Science). 2019, 49(3):  80-85.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1672-3961.0.2019.099
    Abstract ( 754 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF (1848KB) ( 289 )   Save
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    The special design of the transition layer between subgrade and semi-rigid base was scarce in the design system of pavement. The mechanism of the transition layer was studied, and then based on the analyses of reinforcing effect of transition layer under different modulus and thickness, the reinforcement incremental coefficient and optimal reinforcement model were proposed. Meanwhile, combined with typical semi-rigid base pavement structure, the economic modulus and thickness of transition layer were put forward. Results showed that the reinforcing effect was promoted as the increasement of the modulus and thickness of the transition layer, but the reinforcing efficiency was reduced. In order for higher reinforcing efficiency, the modulus of the transition layer should be 200~500 MPa, and the thickness should be not less than 20 cm.

    Slope deformation and parameters sensitivity in the design of double-row supporting piles
    Yang GAO,Haokai SUN,Richeng LIU
    Journal of Shandong University(Engineering Science). 2019, 49(3):  86-94.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1672-3961.0.2019.019
    Abstract ( 1052 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (3228KB) ( 405 )   Save
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    This manuscript took the design of double-row pile support for a foundation pit project in Huaiyin District of Jinan City as an example. Elastoplastic solid elements and linear pile elements in finite difference numerical software was used to simulate the whole process of excavation-support-construction. The pile-soil interaction was taken into account and three-dimensional dynamic analysis carried out. In this paper, the design parameters of soil mechanics parameters, pile diameter, pile length, pile spacing, and coupling beam used to compare the sensitivity of foundation pit deformation. The calculation results for the "entity" and "structure" unit piles used for comparison. The research showed that the simulation process could better show the force mechanism of the double-row supporting pile construction process, and the calculation accuracy was high. The cohesive force, friction angle of the soil and the length of the pile and the distance of the pile in the controllable parameters had a great influence on the support effect. The calculation results could provide a reference for the selection of design parameters of double-row support piles.

    Experimental study on energy dissipation of granite subjected to three-dimensional coupled static and dynamic loading
    Shaosen MA,Weizhong CHEN,Wusheng ZHAO
    Journal of Shandong University(Engineering Science). 2019, 49(3):  95-102.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1672-3961.0.2017.577
    Abstract ( 692 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (5976KB) ( 272 )   Save
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    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of axial static stress, confining pressure, strain rate on the energy dissipation and failure patterns of granite under three-dimensional coupled static-dynamic loading on a modified split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. In particular, four levels of axial static stress (25, 50, 75 and 100 MPa), four levels of confining pressure (0, 5, 10 and 15 MPa) and four levels of strain rate (70, 90, 110, 130 s-1) were respectively set up. The test results showed that the absorbed energy per unit volume increased with the decreasing axial static stress, growing confining pressure and higher strain rate. Moreover, it was found that energy storage limit (ESL) played vital roles in the process of energy absorption and release in various situations during the impact: the difference between ESL and initial energy determined the energy absorption value; the ratio between them derived the energy release value when the rock entered early damage stage under static stresses. ESL itself, on the other hand, was proportional to the energy release value when the rock turned into late damage stage before dynamic loading. In addition, the destructiveness had a close correlation with energy dissipation: such a correlation maintained negative when the strain rates were similar and static stress combinations varied; it turned to be positive when static stress combinations were fixed and strain rates varied.

    Mechanical Engineering
    Experimental study on prestressed process parameters of diamond circular saw roll tensioning
    Xiaotao CHEN,Jinsheng ZHANG,Bo HUANG,Junwei JU,Bainian ZHANG,Jiaqi ZHAO
    Journal of Shandong University(Engineering Science). 2019, 49(3):  103-107.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1672-3961.0.2018.100
    Abstract ( 702 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (3840KB) ( 229 )   Save
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    Typical Φ1 650 mm diamond circular saw blade was pretreated by prestressing. The axial deformation of saw blade substrate before and after prestressing treatment was collected to study the effect of prestressing position and load on tensile state. The test results showed that the position of prestress was positively related to the radial distance, and the effect of tangential tensile stress was more obvious. The axial rigidity and stability of saw blades was enhanced, and the ability of saw blade steel core to restrain the axial load-bearing deformation was enhanced by 216%~232%. The prestressing load increased the ability of the circular saw blade to suppress deformation. If the prestressing load was too large, the overall rigidity and stability of the saw blade after the prestressing treatment weakened, and the ability of the matrix to suppress the axial load deformation only increased by 155%~187%.

    Prediction method of tailing dam groundwater levels based on improved PSO-BP neural network
    Diankun ZHENG,Tongle XU,Zhaojie YIN,Qingmin MENG
    Journal of Shandong University(Engineering Science). 2019, 49(3):  108-113.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1672-3961.0.2017.449
    Abstract ( 604 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (1153KB) ( 252 )   Save
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    To solve the low convergence speed and poor precision problem of the traditional prediction algorithm, an improved particle swarm optimization(IPSO) algorithm was proposed. The inertia factor ω and the accelerating factor c1 and c2 of the algorithm were dynamically adjusted during the searching process to improve the optimization effectiveness. The weights and thresholds of back propagation(BP) network were optimized by the improved algorithm. And the prediction model of groundwater levels in tailing dam was built and verified according to its instance data. The test results showed that the convergence speed of algorithm and the accuracy of prediction model was improved.

    Chemistry and Environment
    Life cycle assessment-based water footprint analysis of paper making wastewater
    Donglu YANG,Xiaotian MA,Jinglan HONG
    Journal of Shandong University(Engineering Science). 2019, 49(3):  114-119, 128.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1672-3961.0.2018.529
    Abstract ( 777 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (4076KB) ( 303 )   Save
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    The paper industry suffered serious environmental impacts and high resource consumption, and lacked an effective method to quantify the potential environmental impacts. The water footprint method was applied to different scenarios of wastewater treatment to conduct analyses at the inventory level and the environmental impact level. Results showed that wastewater without disposal scenario had the highest water footprint value, which was 36.4 m3. After the improvement of wastewater treatment, the impact of water footprint decreased significantly. The water footprint of the wastewater disposal via oxidation ditch technology was 4.82 m3, which reduced to 1.52 m3 after the technical updating. Among these scenarios, the updated wastewater treatment combined sludge pyrolysis gasification had the lowest water footprint value (0.87 m3). For the wastewater treatment updated scenarios, direct water footprint was the dominant contributor to aquatic eutrophication and water scarcity. Sewage sludge treatment was the key process to carcinogens, non-carcinogens, and freshwater ecotoxicity. Meanwhile, the consumption of chemicals, electricity, and hydrochloric acid contributed partly to the overall potential impact. It was useful to save water resource and reduce water footprint by optimizing the use of freshwater and improving the efficiency of chemicals consumption.

    Toxic effects and mechanisms of oxidative stress induced by modified ultrafine carbon black
    Chenhao JIA,Rutao LIU
    Journal of Shandong University(Engineering Science). 2019, 49(3):  120-128.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1672-3961.0.2018.443
    Abstract ( 629 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (6678KB) ( 207 )   Save
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    To study the toxic effects and mechanisms of oxidative stress induced by modified ultrafine carbon black (MCB), mouse hepatocytes and catalase (CAT) were exposed to MCB solutions. The cytotoxicity of MCB was assessed by CCK-8 kit, malondialdehyde (MDA) kit and CAT activity assay. The effects on CAT structure and function of MCB were investigated by utilizing fluorescence, UV—vis absorption and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The experiment results demonstrated that the hepatocyte viability decreased with the increase of MCB concentration. Low MCB doses (< 30 mg/L) increased CAT activity to protectcells from oxidative damage while high doses of MCB (> 30 mg/L) caused accumulation of MDA and redox imbalance in the cells, which induced oxidative damage in the liver. Spectroscopy studies found that MCB destroyed the secondary and tertiary structure of CAT and changed the microenvironment of amino acids, which made denaturation of the peptide chain. As a result, changes of skeleton structure reduced the activity of CAT. This study clarified the oxidative mechanism of MCB causing oxidative stress effects and provided a reference for the toxicity mechanism of nanomaterials.