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Table of Content

      
    24 August 2007
    Volume 37 Issue 4
    Articles
    An approach to detecting faces in color images
    ,
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  0-0 . 
    Abstract ( 338 )   Save
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    The paper describes a new face detection approach in color images, which synthesizes skin color detection, eye locating and SVM based face verification. Images are first segmented by fuzzy C means clustering algorithm, and local characteristic is adopted to improve this clustering algorithm. Color patches are classified as skin patches in terms of the number of skin color pixels. Then, locate eyes using eye light maps and chrominance maps in skin patches. Face candidates will be obtained consequently. Lastly, Face candidates will be tested by trained SVM.
    Study on Traffic Volume Forecasting Algorithm Based on RBF Neural Network
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    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  0-0 . 
    Abstract ( 331 )   Save
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    Traditional training algorithms for radial basis function (RBF) neural networks mostly start with a predetermined hidden layer structure which is selected either by using a priori knowledge or based on previous experience. The parameters of RBF networks are trained by using traditional clustering and least squares method. These training algorithms are always based on local search method and often suffered from being trapped at structural local minima. In this paper a new method of training RBF structural parameters by using genetic algorithm which incorporates a new clustering method named sorting MSS (most scattered set ) clustering method and traditional least square method is put forward. This method not only prevents the result of network from being trapped at local minima but also the computational efficiency was highly improved. The results are satisfied through applying this algorithm for the traffic flow forecasting.
    Reliable guaranteed cost control for uncertain nonlinear discrete-time systems with state delay
    ,
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  0-0 . 
    Abstract ( 320 )   Save
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    This paper concerns the reliable guaranteed cost control problem for a class of uncertain nonlinear discrete-time systems with state delay and actuator failures. The problem is to design a memoryless state feedback reliable guaranteed control law such that the closed-loop system is asymptotically stable and the closed-loop cost function value is not more than a specified upper bound for all admissible uncertainties. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory and the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, the sufficient conditions for the existence of such controller are derived. The optimal reliable guaranteed cost controllers with minimum guaranteed cost for closed-loop systems are designed based on the solution of a convex problem in terms of LMIs. A numerical example is given to illustrate the proposed method.
    Optimal Robust Filtering for Linear Uncertain Systems with Multiple Delayed Measurements
    ,
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  0-0 . 
    Abstract ( 313 )   Save
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    This paper studies the optimal robust filtering for linear discrete-time uncertain systems with multiple delayed measurements. A novel approach is presented based on the reorganized innovation theory and projection in Hilbert space. The calculation of the new method involves in solving multiple Riccati difference equations of the same dimensions that of the original systems and one Lyapunov equation. Compared with the conventional state augmentation, the presented approach greatly lessens the computational demand. A numerical example and its simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
    The Design and Implementation of Comprehensive 3D Software System for Educational Robot
    ,
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  0-0 . 
    Abstract ( 310 )   Save
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    It’s the first time in educational robot domain of primary and high school that presents the design and implementation virtual manufacture, 3D flowchart programming and dynamically job simulation based on VR technology. The design goals are firstly introduced, it expatiates at length on how OpenGL is used to implement the system software, realizing educational robot’s virtual manufacture, 3D job edition and simulation. Finally, concluding remarks for future works are given.
    Robot Autonomous Localization Based on Single Artificial Landmark
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    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  0-0 . 
    Abstract ( 279 )   Save
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    A new style of landmark is proposed firstly in this paper, then the method to detect and recognize the landmark is studied. Based on camera calibration methods, the robot can realize autonomous localization only by single landmark. Experimental results show that the robot could locate and navigate fast and accurately using this style of landmark in the complex dynamic environment.
    Study On Non-Destructive Evaluation of Multilayered Urea Reactors
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    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  0-0 . 
    Abstract ( 287 )   Save
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    Traditional non-destructive detection technique has some difficulties in testing flaws existing in multilayered urea reactor heavy welds. Experimental results showed that acoustic emission technique could effectively detect heavy weld active flaws, and the accurate size and location of flaws could be measured by ultrasonic phased array as well as time of flight diffraction technique (TOFD). Non-destructive evaluation of multilayered pressure vessels will be attained through utilization of acoustic emission combined with ultrasonic phased array and TOFD method.
    Modal Analysis of Liquid-Filled Elastic Tube Bundles
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    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  0-0 . 
    Abstract ( 303 )   Save
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    Abstract: The structure of elastic tube bundles and the fluid inside constitute a typical fluid-structure interaction system. The governing vibration equation of the system is derived with the displacement-pressure format and the finite element models are built by considering the compressibility of fluid. Natural frequencies and modal shapes of the structure, the fluid inside and the structure-fluid system are calculated separately. The results show that not only the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the original structure and fluid are changed due to the interaction between fluid and structure, but also one subsystem is enforced to vibrate in a particular pattern corresponding to the vibration of the other subsystem. The effects of different fluid on the structure are also different. The influence of fluid-structure interaction must be taken into account when the dynamic response of elastic tube bundles is studied.
    Flow model of nozzle for superfine particles preparation using rapid expansion of supercritical solution
    ,
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  0-0 . 
    Abstract ( 285 )   Save
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    According to the predigestion and analysis of Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solution process, a flow model of nozzle for superfine particles Preparation was established.The description of one-dimensional time-independent flow model included conical entrance segment, straight pipe and outlet segment for ultrasonic expansion till mach disk. The origin of main parameters in the model was given. The basic clues of calculating solution were also presented. Basing on the model of RESS process, the simulation of flow state in each stage could be realized and some parameters data including temperature, pressure, density and velocity along the axis of nozzle could be presented. Some guidelines to optimize parameters condition could be offered, so uniform superfine particles preparation could be achieved.
    Mechanical Analysis on Power Frequency Over Voltage of High Voltage Transmission Line
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    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  0-0 . 
    Abstract ( 325 )   Save
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    In recent years, with the development of high voltage , extra-high voltage and ultra-high voltage, the interconnection of state electrical networks, it has a severe requirement to safety and reliability of network. Especially, it is very important for studying over voltage of EHV and UHV transmission line. This paper analyzes in detail power frequency over voltage. Utilizing mode of long transmission line, the mechanical analysis are given about power frequency over voltage of transmission ling with one terminal power supply, power frequency over voltage at unbalanced fault and power frequency over voltage of transmission line with two ends power supply. Besides, some meaning measures are proposed.
    Analysis and Investigation of Fault Feeder Detection Methods in Neural Ineffectively Grounded System
    ,
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  0-0 . 
    Abstract ( 242 )   Save
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    In China's neural ineffectively grounded system, single-phase-to-ground fault occurs most frequently comparing to other faults, and many methods have been proposed for fault feeder detection, but the detection results are not satisfactory at site. The paper introduces the characteristics of system parameters when single-phase-to-ground fault occurs in neural ineffectively grounded system, and analyzes the principles and methods of present fault feeder detection devices. The paper investigates the fault feeder detection method based on "S injection" principle, and proposes three methods, i.e., magnitude comparison of burst current, signal phase detection and double frequencies injection, to improve the accuracy of fault feeder detection.
    SVC Influences on Shandong Power System and Optimal Locations
    ,
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  0-0 . 
    Abstract ( 251 )   Save
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    The influences of SVC on Shandong power system are analyzed in transmission capacity and voltage stability. According to the time domain simulation based transmission capacity analysis and the power transmission path based voltage stability analysis, the effects and the primary installation points are determined. The computation and analysis are conducted on several SVC installation schemes in Shandong power system, from which the improvements on transmission capacity and voltage stability are obtained and the optimal location of SVC are determined.
    Statistic sensitivity analysis of the Non-drift All-pole Active Low-pass Filters
    ,
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  0-0 . 
    Abstract ( 289 )   Save
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    Based on the definition of statistic sensitivity, through theory deduce, the paper puts forward an optimum method for statistic sensitivity of the non-drift all-pole active low-pass filters. It is proved by low rank system modal. And it can be deduced that when all the βi is equal to one the system sensitivity is at the lowest. The decentralization rate of resistance and capacitance is much lower and the system design is much easier.
    Image Denoising Based on Double-haar Wavelet
    ,
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  0-0 . 
    Abstract ( 311 )   Save
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    To realize the image denoising in the wavelet domain is a lively research field in the signal processing .The double haar wavelet which has been proposed recently can make the image denoising more effentively. In the double haar wavelet transform, we propose a improved way in the choice of windows based on the Lee filter which can realize protecting the details and smoothing the noise. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can get better denoising result than the soft thresholding proposed by Donoho .
    Research on Face Image Retrieval Based on Principal Independent
    ,
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  0-0 . 
    Abstract ( 283 )   Save
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    In this paper, a novel kind of content feature is proposed to be extracted by independent component analysis (ICA), and used for face image retrieval. So a novel content-based face image retrieval scheme is created based on this content feature—principle independent content feature (PICF). In this scheme, PICF based on higher order statistics is firstly extracted in the reduced space for effective representation of face images, and a PICF-based similarity measurement is proposed in the face image retrieval stage to ensure the efficiency of computation and the accuracy of retrieval and to eliminate the ambiguity in the order of independent features. Using the ORL database, where the images vary in illumination, expression, pose, and scale, performs the proposed retrieval procedure. The simulation proves the feasibility of the proposed PICF-based method and the best accuracy can reach 100%, or the average precision can reach 95.14% per thousand experiments in our simulations.
    speech feature extraction by 2-D indepedent component analysis
    ,
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  0-0 . 
    Abstract ( 317 )   Save
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    Independent Component Analysis (ICA) has been widely used in speech signal processing performance. We will investigate the application of ICA to speech feature extraction. Normally the ICA algorithm is applied in the logarithm Mel-scaled filter bank domain to replace the discrete cosine transform (DCT), which is applied to obtaining Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs). In this paper, we will propose a novel 2-D ICA algorithm, with which one can explore the spectral and temporal information of speech signals, and improve the effectiveness and noise robustness of speech features. The evaluation is presented for GMM-based speaker recognition task. The experiment results show the proposed 2-D features provide better performance than normal 1-D features.
    Research about urban traffic evaluation system based on VB and FTA
    ,
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  0-0 . 
    Abstract ( 627 )   Save
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    This paper dissertated the basic theory of FTA and its analysis process and introduced FTA according to the practical problems of the urban traffic.It carried on the classification and research to the accident cause factors taking back car from knocking down front one as the example.It completed the evaluation system about the urban traffic and focused on the development process and function of qualitative analysis,quantitative analysis,intelligent evaluation,etc. The benefits and the prospect of the system were necessarily analyzed and the research result can promote the intelligentization and visualization of traffic management.
    Research On The Optimal Control Of Logistics Distribution Vehicle Routing
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  0-0 . 
    Abstract ( 252 )   Save
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    Abstract: This paper closely analyzes the problem proposal and resolution on the optimal control research of logistics distribution vehicle routing; furthermore, it firstly summarizes such problem with Chinese characteristics as the “DVROP (Distribution Vehicle Routing Optimization Problem)”. Then, combined with the innovative bundled algorithm, it introduces some idea of the “game theory”. By the application of this method in the tobacco industry, this problem has been solved rather perfectly, and the considerable economic benefit has been acquired.
    Study of COD determination by interpolation TOC coefficient method
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    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  0-0 . 
    Abstract ( 246 )   Save
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    The interrelation berween waste COD and TOC was studied in this paper. The conception of normalization method in sample treating and restricted determination zone was brought forward. The method of COD determination was founded by TOC determination,and various waste water samples were determined with satisfactory results.
    Study on water-soluble ions in fine particle matter and long-range transport of air masses at Jinan, China
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  0-0 . 
    Abstract ( 233 )   Save
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    To investigate the characteristics of fine particle matter and long–range air masses transport in Jinan, PM2.5 samples were collected every two days from November 2004 to September 2005. The major water-soluble ions and pH values of PM2.5 samples were analyzed. Concentrations of PM2.5 in Jinan exceed standard 93.6% of the time.SO42-, NO3- and NH4+ were the dominant ionic species in PM2.5, accounting for 20.88%, 10.94% and 12.01% of PM2.5 mass respectively. In the aerosol system, NH4+, SO42- and NO3- are assumed to exist as (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3 mainly. PM2.5 in Jinan was slightly acid compared with the blank. Use of a back trajectory model together with K-means cluster analysis shows that the occurrences of high concentrations of PM2.5 in Jinan have good relationship with air masses originating in northwest of Jinan ( Russia, Mongolia, north of China) and traveling at low speed.
    On guaranteed cost control of linear systems with input saturation
    FU Min-yue
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  1-5 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 442 )   PDF (131KB) ( 1303 )   Save
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    This work studies the problem of control design for linear systems with input saturation. It is well known that integral quadratic constraints (IQC) can be used to describe input saturation and that the use of IQC in analysis can lead to less conservative performance bound and larger domain of attraction. In this work, it is shown that a class of commonly used IQCs may not help in control synthesis. That is, the use of these IQCs does not enlarge the guaranteed domain of performance for synthesis.
    Optimal robust filtering for a linear uncertain systems with multiple delayed measurements
    ZHAO Hong-guo,ZHANG Huan-shui,ZHANG Cheng-hui
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  6-12 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 349 )   PDF (273KB) ( 1343 )   Save
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    The optimal robust filtering for linear discrete-time uncertain systems with multiple delayed measurements was studied. A novel approach was presented based on the reorganized innovation theory and projection in Hilbert space. The calculation of this new method involves solving multiple Riccati difference equations of the same dimensions as the original systems and one Lyapunov equation. Compared with conventional state augmentation, the presented approach greatly lessens the computational demand. A numerical example and its simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
    An innovation of the optional estimate for singular linear discrete systems
    CUI Peng,ZHANG Cheng-hui,ZHANG Mei
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  13-18 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 268 )   PDF (259KB) ( 1366 )   Save
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    State estimation of singular discrete-time linear systems is discussed. The filtering problem of the singular systems can be transformed into that of standard systems with advance delay noise. Based on the innovation analysis for equivalent system and the projection formula, its filter predictor is presented by solving two coupled Riccatitype difference equations. Finally, the filter and fixedlag smoother are obtained, which are of the same dimension with the formal singular systems.
    An approach to face detection in color images
    MA Zhi-qiang,CHANG Fa-liang,TIAN Wei,ZHAO Yao
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  19-22 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 373 )   PDF (259KB) ( 1925 )   Save
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    A new face detection approach in color images is given by combining skin color detection, eye location and SVM based face verification. First, images are segmented by a fuzzy C means clustering algorithm, and are improved by adopting the local characteristics. Color patches are classified as skin patches in terms of the number of skin color pixels. Then, eye luminance maps and chrominance maps are used in skin patches. Face candidates will consequently be obtained. Finally, face candidates are tested by trained SVM.
    Traffic volume forecasting algorithm based on RBF neural network
    ZHU Wen-xing,LONG Yan-ping,JIA Lei
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  23-27 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 380 )   PDF (286KB) ( 2673 )   Save
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    Traditional training algorithms for radial basis function (RBF) neural networks usually start with a predetermined hidden layer structure, which is selected by using a priori knowledge and based on previous experience. The parameters of RBF networks are trained by using traditional clustering and the least squares method. These training algorithms are always based on the local search method and often suffer from being trapped at structural local minima. A new method for training RBF structural parameters by using a genetic algorithm is put forward, of which a new clustering method named the sorting MSS (most scattered set) clustering method and a traditional least square method are incorporated. This method can not only prevent the result of the network from being trapped at local minima but also highly improves the computational efficiency. It gives satisfactory results when this algorithm is applied to traffic flow forecasting.
    Reliable guaranted cost control for uncertain nonlinear discrete-time systems with state delay
    XIE Nan
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  28-33 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 228 )   PDF (247KB) ( 1396 )   Save
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    The reliable guaranteed cost control problem for a class of uncertain nonlinear discrete-time systems with state delay and actuator failures is discussed. This problem is applied to design a memoryless state feedback reliable guaranteed control law such that the closedloop system is asymptotically stable and the closed-loop cost function value is not more than a specified upper bound for all admissible uncertainties. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory and the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, the sufficient conditions for the existence of such controller are derived. The optimal reliable guaranteed cost controllers with minimum guaranteed cost for closedloop systems are designed based on the solution of a convex problem in terms of LMIs. A numerical example is given to illustrate the proposed method.
    The design and realization of a 3D software system for an educational robot
    SONG Hong-jun,MA Xin,LI Yi-bin,JIA Lei
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  34-38 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 347 )   PDF (262KB) ( 1344 )   Save
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    By introducing the design and implementation of virtual manufacture, a 3D flowchart program and dynamic job simulation is realized based on VR technology. The design goals are first introduced, which expatiates at length on how OpenGL is integrated to implement the system software, realizes the educational robot's virtual manufacture, 3D job edition and simulation. Finally, concluding remarks for future work are given.
    Robot autonomous localization based on a single artificial landmark
    ZHAO Shou-peng,TIAN Guo-hui,LI Xiao-lei
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  39-44 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 310 )   PDF (293KB) ( 3730 )   Save
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    Based on four essential rules of how to design a landmark, a new style of landmark is proposed, that is a planar self-similar landmark based on QR code technology. The method to detect and recognize the landmark is studied. Based on camera calibration methods, the camera parameters are computed by finding the calibration points in the landmark, which can make the robot realize autonomous localization by only a single landmark. Experimental results show that the robot could locate and navigate fast and accurately using this style of landmark in a complex environment.
    Flow model of a nozzle for superfine particles by using rapid expansion of a supercritical solution
    LIU Yan,WANG Wei-qiang,QU Yan-peng,JIN Yong,XING Xiao-wei
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  45-49 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 259 )   PDF (296KB) ( 2016 )   Save
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    According to the predigestion and analysis of the rapid expansion of a supercritical solution process, a flow model of a nozzle for superfine particles preparation is established. The description of the one-dimensional time-independent flow model includes a conical entrance segment, straight pipe and outlet segment for ultrasonic expansion till mach disk. The main parameters origin in the model and the basic mechanisms of calculating the solution are also presented. Based on the model of the RESS process, the simulation of flow state in each stage is realized and some data of parameters including temperature, pressure, density and velocity along the axis of the nozzle are presented. Some guidelines to optimize parameters are offered to achieve uniform superfine particles.
    Non-destructive evaluation of multilayer wrapped urea reactors
    SONG Ming-da,WANG Wei-qiang,LI Meng-li,XU Shu-gen
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  50-54 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 250 )   PDF (253KB) ( 1670 )   Save
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    A multilayer wrapped urea reactor is tested and evaluated using acoustic emission (AE) technology. The AE event source locations are re-examined by the phased array imaging method. Experimental results show that the acoustic emission technique can effectively detect heavy weld active flaws and the accurate size and location of flaws can be measured by the ultrasonic phased array technique. Nondestructive evaluation of multilayer wrapped pressure vessels will be attained through utilization of acoustic emission combined with the ultrasonic phased array method.
    Modal analysis of liquid-filled elastic tube bundles
    ZHENG Ji-zhou,CHENG Lin,DU Wen-jing
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  55-59 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 260 )   PDF (275KB) ( 1797 )   Save
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    The structure of elastic tube bundles and the fluid inside constitute a typical fluid-structure interaction system. The governing vibration equation of the system is derived from the displacement-pressure format and the finite element models are built by considering the compressibility of the fluid. Natural frequencies and modal shapes of the structure, the fluid inside and the structure-fluid system are calculated separately. The results show that not only the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the original structure and fluid are changed due to the interaction between fluid and structure, but also one subsystem is forced to vibrate in a particular pattern corresponding to the vibration of the other subsystem. The effects of fluids with different densities on the structure are also different. The influence of fluid-structure interaction must be taken into account when the dynamic response of elastic tube bundles is studied.

    Mechanism analysis of power frequency over voltage of a high voltage transmission line

    ZOU Gui-bin,GAO Hou-lei
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  60-63 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 274 )   PDF (226KB) ( 1917 )   Save
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    Power frequency over voltage is analyzed in detail. Utilizing a model of a long transmission line, the mechanism analysis is given concerning power frequency over voltage of a transmission line with one terminal power supply, power frequency over voltage at an unbalanced fault and power frequency over voltage of a transmission line with two ends power supply. Some control measures are proposed.

    Analysis and improvement of the‘S injection’fault feeder detection method

    LIU Ying-liang,GONG Jun-xiang,WEI Guo-dong,MENG Ling-jun,ZHANG Jie
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  64-67 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 220 )   PDF (254KB) ( 2049 )   Save
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    The characteristics of system parameters were given when a single-phase-to-ground fault occurs in a neural ineffectively grounded system, and the principles and methods of present fault feeder detection devices were analyzed. The fault feeder detection method was investigated based on the ‘S injection' principle, and three methods were proposed to improve the accuracy of fault feeder detection, i.e., magnitude comparison of burst current, signal phase detection and double frequencies injection.
    SVC influences on the Shandong power system and the optimal locations
    NIU Xin-sheng,YE Hua,WANG Liang
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  68-72 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 232 )   PDF (277KB) ( 1172 )   Save
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    The influences of SVC on the Shandong power system are analyzed in transmission capacity and voltage stability. According to the time domain simulation based transmission capacity analysis and the power transmission path based voltage stability analysis, the effects and the primary installation points are determined. The computation and analysis are conducted on several SVC installation schemes in the Shandong power system, from which the improvements of  transmission capacity and voltage stability are obtained and the optimal location of SVC are determined.
    Statistic sensitivity optimization of  non-drift  all-pole active low-pass filters

    NG Xiao-fang,CHEN Di,WU Shi-jun

    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  73-76 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 256 )   PDF (256KB) ( 1549 )   Save
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    Non-drift all-pole active low-pass filters are widely used for their  non-drift characteristics. Based on the definition of statistic sensitivity and theory deduction, an optimum method is put forth for statistic sensitivity of the non-drift all-pole active low-pass filters. Their  feasibility is proved by the  low rank system model.It can be deduced that the system sensitivity is the lowest when all the βi are equal to one. The decentralization rate of resistance and capacitance is lowered very  much, and the number of the needed elements  is reduced to the half of the formal ones, so as to realize the objects of system simplification. 
    Image denoising based on the double-Haar wavelet
    HE Chang-wei,WANG Xin
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  77-80 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 195 )   PDF (233KB) ( 2302 )   Save
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    To realize  image denoising in the  wavelet domain is a lively research field in  signal processing .The double Haar wavelet proposed recently can make image denoising more efficient. Based on the double Haar wavelet transformation, an improved method is proposed to realize the noise smoothing and the details protection in review of the partial statistic features of the Lee filter and  high frequency containing  many edges and details of the image . Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can produce  better denoising results than the soft thresholding proposed by Donoho.
    Research on face image retrieval based on principal independent content features
    SUN Guo-xia,SUN Xing-hua,BAI Shu-zhong,LIU Ju,SUN Jian-de
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  81-84 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 274 )   PDF (268KB) ( 1677 )   Save
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    In this paper, a novel kind of content feature is proposed to be extracted by independent component analysis (ICA) and used for face image retrieval. A novel content-based face image retrieval scheme is created based on this content feature—principle independent content feature (PICF). In this scheme, PICF based on higher order statistics is first extracted in the reduced space for effective representation of face images. To ensure the efficiency of computation and accuracy of retrieval, a PICF-based retrieval method that can eliminate the ambiguity in the order of independent features is used in the face image retrieval stage with the ORL database, where the images vary in illumination, expression, pose, and scale. The simulation proves the feasibility of the proposed PICF-based method and the highest  accuracy can reach 100%, and  the average precision  reaches 95.14% per thousand experiments in our simulations.
    Speech feature extraction based on 2-D independent component analysis
    ZOU Xin,LI Wan-long,LIU Ju,Peter Jancovic
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  85-88 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 200 )   PDF (261KB) ( 1892 )   Save
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    Independent Component Analysis (ICA) has been widely used in speech signal processing performance. The application of ICA to speech feature extraction is investigated. Normally the ICA algorithm is applied in the logarithm Mel-scaled filter bank domain to replace the discrete cosine transform (DCT), which is applied to obtain Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs). A novel 2-D ICA algorithm is proposed, with which one can explore the spectral and temporal information of speech signals, and improve the effectiveness and noise robustness of speech features. The evaluation is presented for GMM-based speaker recognition task. The experimental results show that the proposed 2-D features provide  better performance than normal 1-D features.
    An urban traffic evaluation system based on VB and FTA
    ZHU Xiang-cai,LUAN Yun-cai,XU Jian
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  89-92 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 211 )   PDF (287KB) ( 1403 )   Save
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    The basic theory of FTA, its analysis process and the introduction of FTA according to the practical problems of urban traffic is discussed. The classification of factors causing  accidents is carried out by  preventing a following car striking a car in front, for example. The evaluation system concerning urban traffic is accomplished and focuses on the development process and function of qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis,intelligent evaluation, etc. The benefits and the prospect of the system were  analyzed. The result promotes the intellectualization and modernization of traffic management.
    Research on a design method of asphalt overlay on the used cement concrete pavement
    ZHENG Gui-lan,MA Qing-lei,PAN Xiu-hua
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  93-97 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 184 )   PDF (284KB) ( 1930 )   Save
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    Asphalt overlay is one of the effective methods, which can rebuild the used cement concrete pavement.  The calculating method was given based on  theory analysis. The design standard was presented using the following parameters based on the damage phenomenon: the flexural-tensile stress, the difference of cement concrete pavement joint and the shear stress of asphalt pavement on joint. Meanwhile two pavement structure types were presented, which were treated with subbase layer in order to consolidate the pavement and were graded with crushed stone layer in order to delay the reflective crack. Finally, the using qualification, design parameters and calculating method were given.

    Study on the water-soluble ions in fine particle matter and the long-range transport of air masses in the city Jinan

    YANG Ling-xiao,HOU Lu-jian,LV Bo,WANG Wen-xing,ZHOU Xue-hua,WANG Zhe,ZHOU Yang,CHENG Shu-hui
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  98-103 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 227 )   PDF (302KB) ( 1993 )   Save
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    To investigate the characteristics of the fine particle matter and the long-range air masses transport in Jinan, PM2.5 samples were collected every two days from November 2004 to September 2005. The major water-soluble ions and pH values of PM2.5 samples were analyzed. Concentrations of PM2.5 in Jinan exceed 93.6%. SO2-4, NO-3 and NH+4 are the dominant ionic species in PM2.5, respectively accounting for 20.88%, 10.94% and 12.01% of PM2.5 mass. In the aerosol system, NH+4, SO2-4 and NO-3 are assumed to mainly exist as (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3 . PM2.5 in Jinan is slightly acid compared with the blank. It is shown that the occurrences of high concentrations of PM2.5 in Jinan have good relationship with the air masses originating from the northwest of Jinan (Russia, Mongolia, north of China) and traveling at low speed.
    Routing optimization for logistics distribution and its application
    HU Hong-chun,WU Yao-hua,LIAO Li
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  104-107 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 239 )   PDF (294KB) ( 2071 )   Save
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    The problem proposal and resolution on the optimal control research of logistics distribution vehicle routing was analyzed in detail. Furthermore, such problems were summarized with Chinese characteristics as the “DVROP (distribution vehicle routing optimization problem)". Then, some ideas of the “game theory" were introduced by being combined with the innovative bundle algorithm. By the application of this method in tobacco industries, this problem has been solved rather perfectly, and the considerable economic benefit has been acquired.
    COD determination by interpolation of the  TOC coefficient method
    LIU Yun,QIU Xiao-guo
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  108-117 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 242 )   PDF (351KB) ( 1573 )   Save
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    The interference in TOC determination of wastewater was basically solved  by use of the conception of normalization method in sample treatment, such as suspended solids, coexistence ions (sulfate, nitrate, phosphate, chloride, sulfur, etc.), high levels of inorganic carbon (IC), high alkali and highsalt. The determination of TOC in wastewater is normalized. Also  the correlation between TOC and CODCr in  water in Shandong Province was studied. For example, the wastewater of paper making, breweries, dyeing, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, starch, MSG, rubber, chemicals, coke, power plant, sewage treatment plant and surface water, and drinking water. It  proves that TOC has a very good correlation with CODCr under the condition of normalization and restricted determination zone. It  also founds  a new method of COD determination by interpolation of the TOC coefficient method.
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    YI Zhen-zhong
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  118-121 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 231 )   PDF (260KB) ( 1786 )   Save
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    Based on the brief introduction of the  fractal theory, a detailed research about studying the Lotka′s law in a fractal way was put forward. In addition, the fractal property of Lotka′s law presented on statistics was also studied. By comparing the common deduction of the fractal dimensions with the Lotka′s law, the fractal model of Lotka′s law was built. The abstract fractal meaning of the power index in Lotka′s law was analyzed by this model, and the fractal property of Lotka′s law were verified by practical data.
    The development of a CAD system for a sand casting mold on shrinkage allowance and core holes
    LIU Jian,SUN Yu-cheng,TIAN Xue-lei
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2007, 37(4):  122-126 .  doi:
    Abstract ( 226 )   PDF (259KB) ( 1375 )   Save
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    The CAD modules for sand casting mold on shrinkage allowance and pattern draft have been developed and can be run in a 3D environment. It uses the programming tool of Visual C++ and the secondary development tool ObjectARX. Both modules are based on dialog box, which realizes a user-friendly operation. The ODBC database technology has been used to manage parameters in the form of a database, which will improve the accuracy and efficiency of design.