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Table of Content

      
    20 June 2012
    Volume 42 Issue 3
    Articles
    An ensemble co-training algorithm based on active learning
    XIE Huo-sheng, LIU Min
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(3):  1-5. 
    Abstract ( 291 )   PDF (1545KB) ( 1429 )   Save
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    Taking full advantage of  three machine learning methods,  active learning, semi-supervised learning and ensemble learning, an efficient learning algorithm was proposed. The algorithm did  not require two sufficient and redundant views, which had  high generalization abilities. To reduce the error rate, based on the clustering assumption, a new approach was presented to estimate the degree of confidence of the labeled samples in each iteration of the co-training process. Also, a new measure of samples,  the degree of contribution, was given as a clue for selecting the unlabeled samples. Since a high degree of contribution implies a great value of the sample to be selected, selecting the samples with high degrees of contribution after each iteration could  enhance the  feedback effect and the  learning performance. All these could lead to a new ensemble co-training algorithm based on active learning. The feasibility and the performance of the algorithm  were verified by image retrieval experiment.

    Study of region of interest extraction from finger-vein images
    YANG Jin-feng, ZHANG Hai-jin
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(3):  6-12. 
    Abstract ( 346 )   PDF (1996KB) ( 2218 )   Save
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    In order to avoid the impact to the region of interest (ROI) extracted results by random movements of finger when finger-vein images are collected, an approach for locating and extracting the region of interest from finger-vein image was studied. First, the random variations of the finger’s positions were corrected by computing its profile’s primary direction and inter-phalangeal joint’s position, and the ROI was roughly found. Then, an iteration method was applied to obtain the accurate extraction of ROI. The experimental results on a small database showed that the clustering property of ROI extracted better results. This method could extract similar ROIs from fingervein images of a finger, even if its posture is changed.

    Adaptive color blind watermarking algorithm based on complex encrypting and DCT transform
    LIU Zhi-jun, LIU Chun-li
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(3):  13-17. 
    Abstract ( 281 )   PDF (1887KB) ( 1507 )   Save
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    A kind of  complex encrypting adaptive color blind watermarking algorithm was proposed based on timedomain and frequencydomain(integer wavelets domaion).  Pixel value was displaced by logistic chaotic mapping and Chebychev chaotic mapping to creat the  complex chaotic sequence. Pixel position was scrambled by Arnold transform. The watermarking embedding intensity factor was counted by the DCT coefficient. A color watermarking embedding and blind extracting algorithm was designed. Algorithm experiments were produced by Matlab7. Experimental results showed that the algorithm had good transparency and strong robustness on the common watermarking attack.

    Source camera identification based on the relationship between color channels
    LIN Xu-feng, HU Yong-jian, LIU Bei-bei
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(3):  18-24. 
    Abstract ( 274 )   PDF (3114KB) ( 908 )   Save
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    CFA (color filter array) interpolation will introduce correlations between different color channels. In order to improve the accuracy of source camera identification, a novel source camera classification method based on  inter-channel correlations of images was proposed. Variance maps of the green-to-red and green-to-blue spectrum differences were employed to reflect the differences of interpolation algorithms. Such differences could be used as the evidence to distinguish images taken by cameras of different brands or models. The proposed variance maps could efficiently and accurately differentiate interpolation algorithms. Experimental results showed that the proposed method can achieve high identification accuracy and good robustness for images captured by commercial cameras.

    The Lagrange algorithm based relay selection and power optimization in a cooperative system
    BAI Zhi-quan, JIA Jian-lan, YANG Xiang-lai, CUI Juan
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(3):  25-30. 
    Abstract ( 260 )   PDF (1573KB) ( 1200 )   Save
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    Cooperative communication technology can efficiently achieve spatial diversity and improve the system performance. In order to minimize the total power consumption and satisfy the data rate requirement of a decode-and-forward (DF) multi-relay cooperative system, an optimized Lagrange algorithm based relay selection and power allocation scheme was proposed. Based on the utilization of the instantaneous channel state information (CSI) between the source and the relays, the minimal transmit power of the source and the largest decoding relay set could be obtained. With the application of the Lagrange multiplier technique, the power allocation for the source and the relays could be obtained, and the best relays could be selected from the decoding relay set to minimize the total system power consumption. Simulation results showed that the total power consumption of the proposed scheme was significantly reduced compared with that of the direct transmission and the opportunistic relay selection (ORS) scheme.

    Weighted generalized indefinite kernel discriminant analysis based on  fuzzy memberships
    YANG Jing, FAN Li-ya
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(3):  31-38. 
    Abstract ( 261 )   PDF (1017KB) ( 1006 )   Save
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    For linear non-separated problems, many dimensionality reduction methods which are based on the definite kernel were proposed. The Fisher discriminant analysis method,  one of the commonly used methods,  was improved and extended. The definite kernel was extended to the indefinite kernel, and then indefinite kernel discriminant analysis based on fuzzy memberships was proposed. In addition, weighted generalized IKDA algorithms were achieved according to the weighting function. Experimental results showed that the proposed methods could achieve good classification results, and the choice of the weighting function could have a significant effect on the classification results.

    A load balance model for Web services based on  immune stability maintenance
    YU Zhen-mei1, YANG Rong-rong2, QI Feng-mei3, ZHANG Hui3, LIU Feng-ming4
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(3):  39-44. 
    Abstract ( 272 )   PDF (1580KB) ( 1355 )   Save
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    Based on the immune stability maintenance mechanism, a load-balance and service-oriented architecture (SOA) model was proposed. First, the immune stability mechanism and the load balance of SOA Web service were analyzed, and an immune-based extended SOA framework was also proposed. Then, a dynamic load-balance model for Web service was further studied, and a two-phase load-balance optimization algorithm was developed. The capability of the load balance of this model working on a multi-agent simulation platform was also investigated. The experiments and analysis showed that the immune-based model could improve the performance of load balance for Web service and reduce the failure rate of requests.

    Kernelized spatial depth function for the feature extraction method
    ZHANG Si-yi1,2, WANG Shi-tong1*
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(3):  45-51. 
    Abstract ( 232 )   PDF (2931KB) ( 1624 )   Save
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     A new feature extraction method combined with depth function was intended to solve the problem of the traditional feature extraction method of which the efficiency of the feature extraction method was not very satisfactory when the dataset had many different distributions. After studying the Euclidean distance,the relationships of all features according to the kernelized spatial depth function in order to get the all data features and extract similar features were judged to diagnose the same class or the outlier class. Finally, three different standard UCI databases running on three different dimensions and three different running times were simulated in order to demonstrate the algorithm’s efficiency. The result showed more adaptive features. The results showed that the kernelized spatial depth function for feature extraction achieved a satisfactory result and could propose a new idea for the Relief algorithm.

    An image quality assessment model based on structure feature
    LIANG Min-yu, SUN Quan-sen*
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(3):  52-56. 
    Abstract ( 285 )   PDF (1503KB) ( 1391 )   Save
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    As image structure feature is closely related to the human visual system, a new method based on structure feature was proposed to improve the result consistency with a subjective visual effect. First, image structure features were extracted though experience. And then various structural components were calculated with different weights, according to different sensitivities of eyes to image regions. Finally, a new model was proposed with linear regression. Experimental results on different kinds of images showed that the new method had high efficiency and accuracy compared to the PSNR and RMSE, and had a better consistency with a subjective visual effect.

    A static simulation model of overall process for the NGL recovery unit
    PAN Duo-tao1, HUANG Ming-zhong1, ZHANG Xue-jun2, YUAN De-cheng1
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(3):  57-62. 
    Abstract ( 333 )   PDF (1952KB) ( 1841 )   Save
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     A static simulation model of overall process for a light hydrocarbon recovery plant were  developed, which could  not only improve the yield, save energy and reduce loss,  but could also ensure safety in production.The distillation units were modeled based on CAPE-OPEN technology, the parameters of the process were analyzed by simulation and emendated according to the actual data. The correlative process parameters which could  meet the requirement of improving the ethane yield were simulated and evaluated by sensitivity analysis. The process parameters of the demethanizer were optimized. The results showed that the simulation data were in good agreement with the plant data, and the optimum process parameters could  be applied to guide the actual industrial production.

    Coordinating supply chain contracts with fuzzy demand
    SANG Sheng-ju1, ZHANG Qiang2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(3):  63-72. 
    Abstract ( 270 )   PDF (1029KB) ( 1063 )   Save
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     Considering a two-stage supply chain consisting of one supplier and one retailer, models of centralized decision, revenue sharing contract and return contract were constructed under a fuzzy demand environment. The optimal policies of these models were presented by the ranking method of fuzzy numbers based on the fuzzy cut sets theory. Finally, a numerical example was provided to analyze the effectiveness of the proposed models. The results revealed that the retailer′s optimal order quantity fluctuated at the center of the fuzzy demand and increased with the raise of the retail price. A unique solution of the optimal wholesale price and return price existed. In addition, the coordination of members could be achieved in contracts with fuzzy demand.

    Experimental research on connections of steel frames and energy-saving composite panels
    HOU He-tao1, WU Ming-lei1*, QIU Can-xing1, WANG Jing-feng2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(3):  73-80. 
    Abstract ( 268 )   PDF (3141KB) ( 1277 )   Save
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    Steel frame and energy-saving composite panel can be connected in specified arrangements to form a coordinating structural system, which has the good property of lateral resistance. In order to study different effects of lateral resistance and hysteresis characteristic between two arrangements, two full-scale models with a conducting low-cycle reciprocating loading test were designed, which were called beam connection and column connection. It was proved that both systems could effectively improve the ultimate bearing capacity and lateral stiffness. Compared with the beam connection, the column connection showed a better ductility, energy dissipation, structural integrity and reliability. In addition, the column connection could give better seismic performance than the beam connection.

    Properties of semi-flexible cold recycled asphalt mixtures using modified emulsified asphalt and cement binders
    GUO Yin-tao1, 2, LIU Qing-quan2, LIU Zhen-qing3, WANG Song-gen3
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(3):  81-86. 
    Abstract ( 227 )   PDF (1658KB) ( 1159 )   Save
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    Dry and immersion split tests with different cement sequences were carried out, in which performances of semi-flexible recycled mixtures might be affected. The properties of mixtures were based on the compaction test method, the Marshall test method and performance evaluation. A design procedure which included original material selection, gradation design and performance evaluation was proposed. The results first indicated that semi-flexible recycled mixtures with added cement had a denser structure and good moisture stability. Also, semi-flexible recycled mixtures had good high temperature stability, moisture stability, resistance drying shrinkage and temperature shrinkage. The actual project showed that semi-flexible recycled technology had an economic and environmental significance and the application deserved promotion.

    Shaft location optimization in a long tunnel based on  the analysis of pollutants volume fraction
    XU Qing-hui1, SUN Ke-guo2*, ZHU Feng2, XU Hong-wei2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(3):  87-92. 
    Abstract ( 264 )   PDF (1628KB) ( 931 )   Save
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    In a long mountain tunnel, the method of segmented longitudinal ventilation by shafts is more often used, which is concerned with many aspects, such as tunnel features, traffic condition, weather characteristic and environment request, but there is no conclusion for the relation position of the shaft and tunnel in the academia. Based on the discrimination standards of pollutant volume fraction and the computational fluid dynamics method, the optimization method of shaft location was studied by FLOW-3D as the analysis tool and referring the prediction data of prospect traffic from the tunnel feasibility report, which could consider the traffic pollution and environment in the tunnel and influencing factors out the shaft. First, under the related assumption of computational fluid dynamics, the dynamic analysis of air transferred in the tunnel and shaft was given. Then the shaft location optimization was obtained by the data fitting method and the high order polynomial. The optimization method was used to study an exact tunnel, in which the suitable distance was 1km for the shaft. The conclusion showed that the best location of the shaft was 519 m from the air inlet and the distance between the inlet and outlet was 1.079. Finally the rationality and reliability of this optimization method was verified by an example for studying the segmented longitudinal ventilation by shafts in other research.

    Study of volumetric locking based on the smoothed finite element method
    WANG Jian-ming1, ZHANG Gang1*, QI Fang2, FAN Xian-hang1, YU Feng1
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(3):  93-99. 
    Abstract ( 361 )   PDF (2479KB) ( 1443 )   Save
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    Aimed at the volumetric locking problems that were produced by the calculation of the nearly incompressible material in numerical simulation, two schemes based on the smoothed finite element method (SFEM) were proposed. The first scheme was to decompose the material properties matrix into two parts, the volumetric part and nonvolumetric part, and the stiffness matrix was also correspondingly decomposed into two parts. Then, the cellbased smoothed finite element method (CS-FEM) using one subcell (SC=1) was used only on the volume-part and the CS-FEM using more than one subcell (SC>1) was used on the remaining part. The second scheme was to use the node-based smoothed finite element method (NS-FEM) that was free from volumetric locking to calculate the volumetric part and to use the edge-based finite element method (ES-FEM) that had accurate results to calculate the remaining part. Results of the numerical study showed that both schemes were correct and effective,and the second scheme was more accurate than NS-FEM.

    Investigation of surface integrity on dry grinding Ti6Al4V alloy with super-abrasive wheels
    HUO Wen-guo1, XU Jiu-hua2, FU Yu-can2, QI Hou-jun1, SHAO Juan1
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(3):  100-104. 
    Abstract ( 243 )   PDF (2006KB) ( 1271 )   Save
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     Diamond and cubic boron nitride (CBN) grinding wheels were prepared according to dry grinding the titanium alloy. Comparative experiments of grinding were conducted between the vitrified bond SiC and brazed bond super-abrasive grinding wheels on dry grinding Ti6Al4V. Surface status and morphology of the work-piece were measured by means of scanning electron microscopy, three-dimensional digital microscope, profilograph and microhardness tester. The influences of three types of grinding wheels parameters on surface roughness, microstructures and properties of grinding the hardened layer of Ti6Al4V were studied. The results showed an increase of grinding surface roughness with the increase of grinding depth and depress of belt speed under the dry grinding conditions. The surface roughness and deform layer of ground work-piece with super-abrasive wheels were smaller than SiC wheels, which showed that the surperabrasive wheels were suitable for the dry grinding processes of the Ti6Al4V alloy.

    Study of the porous hydroxyapatite scaffold prepared by dipping with polymer foams
    ZHANG Ai-juan, GAO Zeng-li, WANG Wei-wei, LI Cheng-feng
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(3):  105-109. 
    Abstract ( 268 )   PDF (1818KB) ( 1205 )   Save
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    Using a polyurethane sponge as a template, hydroxyapatite scaffolds with adjustable porosity were synthesized by the dipping method. First, the HAP powders were prepared and their phase composition were also analyzed. Second, the porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds were made by dipping polyurethane sponge with a uniform pore structure into slurry, and the dipping times could change the porosity of scaffolds from 45% to 90%.The pores of porous scaffolds were round in shape and 400μm in diameter. With the dipping times increasing, the compressive strength of porous scaffolds correspondingly heightened and reached 3..51MPa after 5 times of dipping, which could meet the clinical requirements. Finally, the biological compatibility of scaffolds was also studied and a conclusion was obtained that the hydroxyapatite scaffolds had certain biological affinity in human environments.

    A study of the stability of complexes formed by cytosine and metal ions (Cu+/2+, Zn2+)
    LIU Jing-jing, AI Hong-qi*, ZHAO Lei, SHI Hu
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(3):  110-114. 
    Abstract ( 305 )   PDF (1724KB) ( 1087 )   Save
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    Effects of hectorite particles on emulsification stability of  polymer flooding produced water
    WANG Yan1, LI Yu-jiang1*, SUN De-jun2, WU Tao2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(3):  115-119. 
    Abstract ( 264 )   PDF (2189KB) ( 1508 )   Save
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    The effects of hectorite particles on oilwater separation and oilwater interfacial properties of polymer flooding produced water were investigated. The stability of the polymer flooding was characterized by oil content analysis. When the HPAM(hydrolyzed polyacrylamide) concentration was 100-600 mg/L and the hectorite particles concentration was 50-100mg/L, and the hectorite particles had the greatest impact on the stability of the polymer flooding produced water under the experimental conditions. The influences of hectorite particles on Zeta potential, interfacial tension, oilmineral aggregates of polymer flooding produced water and viscosity were studied. The results showed that the addition of hectorite particles could cause the Zeta potential of oil droplets to rapidly decrease, the interfacial tension declined and viscosity was enhanced in polymer flooding produced water. The effect of hectorite particles on emulsification stability of polymer flooding produced water was noticeable. When the hectorite particles concentration was higher than 100mg/L, the oil droplets tended to coagulate, which was of benefit to the polymer flooding produced water treatment.

    Theoretical study of the structure-activity relationship of thiourea  derivatives of 1,2,4-thiazol-5-one andthione
    LI Jin-yun1, MA Hai-xia2*, HUANG Jie2, WANG Hua-li2, SONG Ji-rong2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(3):  120-125. 
    Abstract ( 256 )   PDF (1116KB) ( 1459 )   Save
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    The thiourea derivatives of 1,2,4-triazol-5-one and —thione play important roles in the innovation of pesticides. In order to investigate the structureactivity relationship of these compounds, the theoretical calculations were carried out by the density functional theory (DFT) with the B3LYP method at the 6-311G basis set. The optimized geometric parameters, atomic net charges, orbital energy and IR spectroscopic properties were studied. The relationship between the structures and the activities of these compounds were analyzed. The calculation results showed good agreements with the experimental results. The results indicated that the S(9) atom was found to be an active point in the studied thioureas, and the more the charges on S(9), the more active the compound will be.

    Application of the matter-element model based on normalized index  values to the assessment of water safety
    LI Jia-jia1,2,3, LU Xiao-ning1, LI Zuo-yong1, XIONG Dong-hong2,3, LIU Zhi-hong1, ZHAI Juan1,2,3
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(3):  126-132. 
    Abstract ( 260 )   PDF (997KB) ( 870 )   Save
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    As the traditional matter-element method has many indexes for water safety assessment, many correlation functions are necessary for design, which will lead to great inconvenience. In order to reduce the number of the designed correlation function and to normalize the correlation function, the matter-element assessment model of water safety was studied based on normalized indexes values. On the basis of setting index reference values of 23 common indexes and normalizing transformation for indexes, the 23 common indexes were classified into 5 categories according to the subsystems, and similar indexes were designed for the same correlation function, which could greatly reduce the work of design and calculation. Taking Shandong Province as an example, the application of the matter-element model was proposed based on normalized index values to assess the water safety in details. Furthermore, the results were compared with that of the attribute recognition theory. The comparison results showed that the matter-element model based on normalized index values was an effective assessment and analysis method with simplicity, practicability and reliability.

    Analysis of beat vibration phenomenon in the AMB spindle
    BIAN Bin1, LIU Shu-qin1, HE Si-yan2, LI De-guang1
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(3):  133-137. 
    Abstract ( 358 )   PDF (2669KB) ( 1379 )   Save
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    In order to reduce the effect of the beat vibration phenomenon on the machining accuracy of the highspeed precision grinder active magnetic bearing spindle, its own sensor and digital signal processing components of the magnetic bearing were used to observe and measure the beat vibration without other equipment being attached. Time domain analysis, frequency domain analysis and wavelet transform were applied to extract the characteristics of the vibration signal. The analysis showed that the beat vibration phenomenon was caused by rotor mechanical imbalance and the rotor dynamic eccentricity. Based on the mechanism analysis of the beat vibration in the magnetic bearing electric spindle, the active control could be used to adjust the spindle dynamic characteristics, and therefore to realize the suppression of beat vibration phenomenon, the stability and precision of the magnetic levitation high-speed precision grinder spindle system could be effectively improved.

    Research on a subsurface drip irrigation system of a highway median strip
    MI Gang1, WANG Hao2*
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(3):  138-142. 
    Abstract ( 302 )   PDF (1267KB) ( 1135 )   Save
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    Based on a median strip irrigation project at the Zaozhuang section of National Highway No.3, the application problem of irrigation technology in highway median strip irrigation was experimentally studied. Dripping performance of micro-porous pipe laboratory test and the physical model test of soil water movement under the irrigation condition were put forth. The dripping law of the pipe and the movement of soil water were studied in these experiments. And then, the irrigation design parameters were given. In consideration of the flow rate, the stability and the limited time, the proper water stress was 6m and the proper length of the rubber pipe was 50m for the 2.5L/h pipes, the proper water stress  was 5m  and the proper length of the rubber pipe was 35m for the 6.0L/h ones. The proper depth of dripping pipes was 45cm, and the proper layout spacing was 1m.