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Table of Content

      
    20 April 2012
    Volume 42 Issue 2
    Articles
    Face recognition based on ensemble of wavelet subspaces
    ZHAI Jun-hai1, ZHAI Meng-yao1, ZHANG Su-fang2, WANG Xi-zhao1
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(2):  1-6. 
    Abstract ( 284 )   PDF (1581KB) ( 1127 )   Save
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    The low frequency subimage is  usually used for face recognition based on wavelet transform (WT) methods. However, some important information hidden in other high frequency subimages will be  unavoidably lost. To solve this problem, two methods were  presented for face recognition by ensemble of wavelet subspaces, and the comparisons with other related methods were put forth by experiments. In the first method, the wavelet low frequency subimages at each layer were integrated for face recognition. In the second method, face images were first  decomposed into different subimages with L layer wavelet transform, and then L wavelet subspace images were obtained by averaging three high frequency subimages of each layer and integrating the low frequency subimage of each layer. Finally the L wavelet subspace images were integrated for face recognition. The proposed methods could make full use of the information provided by the different frequency subimages and the accuracy of face recognition was improved. The experimental results of three face databases (ORL, YALE, and JAFFE) showed that the proposed methods, especially the second method, could obtain a higher accuracy than other related methods.

    Decision table reduction based on neighborhood relation
    WU Ke-shou, CHEN Yu-ming, ZENG Zhi-qiang
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(2):  7-10. 
    Abstract ( 294 )   PDF (948KB) ( 1036 )   Save
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    In view of the fact that the classical rough set theory has  difficulty  dealing  with  continuous data, a reduction method was proposed based on neighborhood relation in the decision table. By the definitions of neighborhood relation and neighborhood parameter, each object in the universe was assigned to  a neighborhood subset, called neighborhood granule, which could avoid the loss of information in the discretization process. The concepts of neighborhood positive region and neighborhood reduction were defined. The positive region monotonous principle was analyzed. Furthermore, the dependency function based on neighborhood relation was used to evaluate the significance of attributes and two heuristic attribute reduction algorithms were constructed. Theoretical analysis and an   example showed  that the reduction method was efficient and feasible.

    A  new algorithm of cold-start in a collaborative filtering system
    LI Gai1,2,3, LI Lei2,3
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(2):  11-17. 
    Abstract ( 455 )   PDF (2031KB) ( 3030 )   Save
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     In the collaborative filtering algorithms based on matrix decomposition, the new user and new item cold-start is a difficult problem. The problem of cold-start was solved by using the attribute-to-feature a mapping algorithm based on K-nearest-neighbor(KNN) to get the feature vectors of the new user and new item. The experimental evaluation using a real-world dataset showed the effectiveness of this method.
     

    Two-stage semi-supervised clustering algorithm based on affinity propagation
    ZHANG You-xin, WANG Li-hong
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(2):  18-22. 
    Abstract ( 327 )   PDF (1012KB) ( 1066 )   Save
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    The affinity propagation clustering algorithm(AP) is sensitive to the preference value, and it is difficult  to find the optimal preference value. 2SAP, a two-stage semisupervised clustering algorithm based on AP, was proposed to overcome this limitation. Semisupervised clustering based on affinity propagation (SAP) was used to cluster the whole dataset and obtain the exemplar set, and then the SAP was used again to cluster the exemplar set to find the final clusters. Experimental results on real data sets showed that the 2SAP was better than SAP and PSAP in terms of CRI and FCRI, and the lower coefficients of dispersion illustrated that 2SAP was less sensitive to the preference value.

    Feature selection of gene expression profiles of colon cancer
    PAN Dong-yin, ZHU Fa, XU Sheng, YE Ning*
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(2):  23-29. 
    Abstract ( 314 )   PDF (2604KB) ( 1523 )   Save
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     In order to improve the recognition rate of colon cancer sample by selecting the related genes, sequential floating search method(SFSM) basing on Chernoff distance was proposed. Every gene was evaluated and selected by analyzing the data set of the colon cancer gene expression profiles. Some candidate feature gene subsets were obtained by searching the selected gene subset with the method of SFSM whose evaluation function was Chernoff distance. Three different classifies, support vector machines, K-nearest neighbors, and RBF neural networks, were used to validate the classified efficiency. The experimental results showed that when β=025, the feature gene combination obtained by SFSM with Chernoff distance as its evaluation function was optimal, and colon cancer sample could be recognized best.

    Heuristic construction method for the initial tour of the Lin-Kernighan algorithm
    ZENG Hua1, CUI Wen2, FU Lian-ning1, WU Yao-hua1*
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(2):  30-35. 
    Abstract ( 695 )   PDF (1793KB) ( 2695 )   Save
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     Initialization construction strategy is an important phase of the LinKernighan algorithm, which is known as one of the most efficient heuristic methods to solve the traveling salesman problem. In most past research, only one construction strategy was adopted, but there was little  research on what strategies could be used in the LinKernighan algorithm and how differently  they perform. 8 construction strategies were analyzed, and 4 of them were found applicable  for LinKernighan initialization. Numerical experiments and computational results with 6 TSPLIP instances showed that  the 4 construction strategies proposed were effective and efficient initialization methods. Additionally, it was proved that the Clark Wright algorithm had the best convergence speed, while the nearest insertion algorithm had the best optimization rate.

    Finite-time stability for a class of nonlinear time-delay systems
    YANG Ren-ming, WANG Yu-zhen*
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(2):  36-44. 
    Abstract ( 286 )   PDF (1071KB) ( 1163 )   Save
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    研究了一类非线性时滞系统的有限时间稳定性,给出了一些新的时滞无关和时滞相关的有限时间稳定性结果。 应用Razumikhin方法 (R方法), 给出了一般非线性时滞系统的一个有限时间稳定性判据。为了研究这类系统的有限时间稳定性, 根据正交分解法和坐标变换方法,得到了这类系统的一个等价形式。 基于上述得到的稳定性判据和等价形式,给出了这类系统的几个时滞无关和时滞相关的稳定性结果。 通过仿真模拟验证了该方法的有效性。

    Research on the bondperformance of polyvinyl alcohol-engineered cementitious composite to concrete
    BU Liang-tao, ZHOU Ning, LU Chen, LI Wei
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(2):  45-51. 
    Abstract ( 381 )   PDF (3172KB) ( 1535 )   Save
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    为了研究聚乙烯醇纤维砂浆(PVA-ECC)与混凝土之间的粘结性能,通过钻芯拉拔试验分析了混凝土强度等级、界面剂类型、聚乙烯醇纤维水泥砂浆强度等级3种因素对聚乙烯醇纤维水泥砂浆与混凝土之间粘结性能的影响,最后用Table Curve 3D软件拟合PVA-ECC与混凝土界面的钻芯拉拔强度受3因素影响的回归公式。研究结果表明:混凝土的强度等级对界面粘结性能影响极不显著,而聚乙烯醇纤维水泥砂浆强度等级对界面粘结性能影响显著,界面剂因素影响高度显著。公式计算结果与试验结果吻合良好。

    Experiment on internal particle size distribution law of a waste dump
    CUI Nai-xin, ZHAO Fang-fang, LIANG Bing, GAI Di
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(2):  52-57. 
    Abstract ( 213 )   PDF (2295KB) ( 1015 )   Save
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    According to similarity simulation theory, the characteristics of particle size distribution in the coal mine waste damp of Haizhou coal mine in Fuxin was analyzed. A threedimensional physical model was built according to the drilling histogram on the physical model by Matlab image processing technology. The results showed that the interior of a whole coal mine waste dump could be divided into three parts. The smaller coal gangue particles were mainly distributed around the upper area of the dump and the medium particle size of coal gangue were located in the central region, and the larger size of coal gangue concentrated around the bottom of the dump. A  strip  of serrated structure could be found around the junction between two regions. The number of strips gradually reduced along the wings of track slope of the dump. Influenced by different particle size of the coal gangue distribution in the dump, the value of the coal gangue unit weight was higher in the middle and upper area, while in the surrounding position, the value of the unit weight was lower.

    Application of extensible comprehensive evaluation for rock-burst prediction in a  hydro-tunnel
    ZHANG Yong-xi
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(2):  58-63. 
    Abstract ( 214 )   PDF (969KB) ( 1097 )   Save
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     Rock-burst is a  hazard for highly  buried tunnels and cravens, which always  threatens the safety of workers and the equipment. Both the lithology and the geostress combined with field test were mainly considered to predict the rock-burst level of a  hydro-tunnel. The lithology parameters were determined by rock mechanics and the geostress parameters were determined by measurement using the hollow inclusion method and FEM simulation. The method  proved to be good for guiding the construction by the comparison of prediction and  field results.

    Analysis of  the water impeller hub radius of a wave power generator based on FLUENT
    WANG Shi-ming1, ZHANG Fu-xi1*, HU Qing-song1, WU Yue2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(2):  64-69. 
    Abstract ( 353 )   PDF (1671KB) ( 1128 )   Save
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    Based on the momentum computing method and applying FLUENT software, different water impeller hub radii of wave power generator simulating computation was carried out, and the results of impeller stress and  torque were obtained. Furthermore, compared with experimental  results, the influence of the impeller hub radius to generating efficiency was discussed, and the best radius was selected. This  method could  increase the optimization efficiency. The simulation results showed that  the analyzing theory and methods were valid and could  be applied to direct the design of a water impeller.

    Identification of inertia and state estimation for PMSM
    DING Xin-zhong1, ZHANG Cheng-rui1*, LI Hu-xiu1, YU Le-hua2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(2):  70-76. 
    Abstract ( 413 )   PDF (3010KB) ( 2033 )   Save
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     Based on theories of the model reference adaptive system (MRAS) and the Kalman filter, the online inertia identification and state estimation of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) servo system were  respectively studied for improving the dynamic performance and robustness. In the proposed algorithm, an optimal state estimator based on the Kalman filter was used to provide exact estimation for the rotor speed, rotor position and disturbance torque in a random noisy environment. Also, the MRAS was incorporated to identify the variations of inertia moment real time, and the identified inertia was used to adapt the EKF for better dynamic performance. In addition, the disturbancerejection ability to variations of the mechanical parameters was discussed, and it was verified that the system was robust to the modeling error and system noise. Simulation and experimental results showed that, compared with the M/T method, the proposed technique had better performance in speed resolution, real-time and anti-interference ability.

    Molecular dynamics simulation of alkyl benzene sulfonate at the oil-water interface
    SHI Jing1,2, L Kai2, YUAN Shi-ling2*
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(2):  77-82. 
    Abstract ( 290 )   PDF (1811KB) ( 1089 )   Save
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    The interfacial aggregates of anionic surfactant and hexadecane benzene sulfonate at the hexadecane-water interface were  studied by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, and the effect of the attachment position of benzene sulfonate on the hexadecane backbone was discussed. Depending on the interface formation energy and the interfacial thickness, the 2C16-mediated system, in which the benzene sulfonate group  attached to the 2nd carbon in the hexadecane backbone, had the most energetic stable and  thickest interface. Furthermore, the arrangement of the surfactant monolayer at the interface was compared in terms of molecular interfacial area and conformational parameters. The results showed that the influence of the structure of branched alkyl benzene sulfonate was mainly attributed to the conformational alignment of the lipophilic alkyl tail for larger alkanes. As the substituted position of the benzene ring moved closer to the carbon chain endpoint, the surfactants were aligned with a smaller interfacial area, indicating stronger adsorption at the interface. As the extensibility and orderliness of the surfactants molecules increased, the interface arrangement compact more closely,which could make the surfactant correlate with a lower interfacial tension for the hexadecane-water interface and could make it easier for oil flooding.

    Enhancement of nitrogen and phosphorus removal in biofilter and ts application to saline wastewater  treatment
    ZHAO Hai-xia, SHI Kai, FU Lin, GAO Jin-qiang, ZHOU Wei-zhi*
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(2):  83-89. 
    Abstract ( 326 )   PDF (1987KB) ( 1398 )   Save
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    In order to efficiently remove nutrients from saline wastewater, biological aerated filter systems were designed, set up and operated with synthetic wastewater, in which the concentrations of CODCr, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were respectively in the ranges of 300~400 mg/L, 30~45 mg/L and 3.5~5.5 mg/L. The effect of operational parameters on the removal of organics, nitrogen and phosphorus was investigated. To improve the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus, the aeration mode changed from continuous to intermittent. The enhancement of biofilter performance caused by intermittent aeration was examined and the optimal cycle time of intermittent aeration was determined. Under the optimal operating condition, the removal efficiency of CODCr, total nitrogen and phosphorus were 92.1%, 77.9% and 70.3%, respectively. The intermittently aerated biological filter showed reasonable salt tolerance and efficiency in nutrients removal from saline wastewater (salinity 0%~3%). The removal of CODCr was less sensitive to salinity than nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In comparison to the other studied biological processes, the intermittently aerated biofilter could efficiently   remove nutrients at identical salinity, and consequently had superiority and better application prospect.

    Study of the synthesis and properties of drag reduction and anti-shearingstability of coordination compound oil reducers based on laurel metharylate-vinyl pyridine-zinc dimethacrylate
    CHEN Shi-wei1, MU Chun-ling2, L Xiao-bo1, WANG Qi-tian1, ZHANG Chang-qiao1*
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(2):  90-96. 
    Abstract ( 349 )   PDF (3083KB) ( 1369 )   Save
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     Solution polymerization and emulsion polymerization are the main methods for  synthesizing the coordination compound oil reducers. In order to select the best method for synthesizing the coordination compound oil reducers,  lauryl methacrylate was first prepared from methacrylic acid and dodecanol. Then the coordination compound oil reducers were respectively synthesized by the solution polymerization method and emulsion polymerization method,  and using styrene and synthesized methacrylate as the raw material, 4-vinyl pyridine and zinc dimethacrylate as polar monomers. The molecular structures of the coordination compound oil reducers were characterized by infrared spectrum, and the drag reducers were  also examined by thermal analysis instrument and VISCOTEK DLS. The association of the drag reducers synthesized by the mentioned different methods were further confirmed and compared. The drag reduction rate and the properties of anti-shearing on different methods were examined. Finally, the conclusion showed  that the effective coordination compound oil reducers could be synthesized by the solution polymerization method and emulsion poly-merization method, while the product of emulsion polymerization was better than that of solution polymerization from the prospective of getting larger hydrodynamics radius and glass transition temperature, which showed that the product of emulsion polymerization had a  more stable association. The results indicated that the product of emulsion polymerization had a  more stable association, preferable drag reduction and anti-shearing force, which showed that the best method was emulsion polymerization.

    Fouling properties of a vibration pipe under the condition of constant heat flux
    LIAN Gen-kuan1, TIAN Mao-cheng2, LENG Xue-li2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(2):  97-101. 
    Abstract ( 281 )   PDF (2180KB) ( 978 )   Save
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    The experiment platform was of the round tube fouling was established. The fouling growth characteristics of the still and vibrational pipes under the condition of constant heat flux were experimentally studied, and the time-dependent curves of fouling resistance under different conditions were obtained. Experimental results showed that the fouling growth curve was representative asymptote,and the asymptotic fouling resistance declined with an increasing vibrational Reynolds number in exponential form,and the vibrational asymptotic fouling resistance was less than the stillness asymptotic fouling resistance under the same conditions. Vibration fouling resistance is significantly reduced while the frequency and amplitude increase.

    Performance analyses of separated type heat pipe and low pressure economizer
    LU Wan-peng, SHI Yue-tao, SUN Feng-zhong
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(2):  102-107. 
    Abstract ( 351 )   PDF (1661KB) ( 1518 )   Save
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    Based on the theory of energy conservation for a power plant thermal system, the energy conservation of a the low pressure economizer(LPE) system was quantitatively analyzed, which could recover the flue gas waste heat from power station boiler to heat the condensation water. The operating principle and heat-transfer mechanism of a separated type heat pipe(STHP) were discussed. The economic performance and reliability for STHP and LPE of the parameters of a 320MW condensing unit were respectively analyzed using the equivalent enthalpy method. The results showed that all the tube wall temperatures of STHP were uniform, which could help to avoid cold end corrosion, while the layout of STHP could easily lead to ash deposition. The heated condensation water temperature was limited to the saturation temperature inside STHP. So the saving extraction steam of STHP had a lower energy level. The amount of energy saving of LPE was double compared with STHP with the same heat transfer areas and flue gas temperature decrease.

    CV-GA-SVM model for predicting the ash fusion point of a mixed biomass
    SUN Peng, CHENG Shi-qing*, XIE Jing-si, ZHANG Hai-rui
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(2):  108-111. 
    Abstract ( 321 )   PDF (1107KB) ( 1093 )   Save
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     In order to predict the ash fusion point of a mixed biomass more quickly and accurately, the support vector machine(SVM)regression model was optimized by a genetic algorithm(GA), built by other researchers was further optimized by cross validation(CV). The ash fusion point of a mixed biomass was predicted by the optimized model and was   trained by the data of a single biomass while  taking ash compositions as input and the ash fusion point as output. The result was compared with models optimized only by GA. The results showed that the SVM model optimized by GA and CV, with average absolute error 25。0℃ and relative error 2。7%, could predict the ash fusion point of a mixed biomass better than that  optimized only by GA, and the running time could be saved if parameters were  properly set.

    Numerical simulation of flow and ash deposition property on gas-solid flow around  an H-finned tube
    YUAN Xiao-dou, SHI Yue-tao*
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(2):  112-117. 
    Abstract ( 217 )   PDF (2083KB) ( 1634 )   Save
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    In order to assess the ash deposition performance of flue gas flowing through the H-type finned tube economizer, a cold numerical simulation was carried out. The unidirectional coupling model was adopted to solve the gas particle flow by ignoring the influence of the solid phase on the gas phase. The flow field was obtained and thoroughly  analyzed under the condition of given inlet velocity and particle mass concentration. Results showed that the velocity profile was M-type on the windward side and W-type on the leeward side of the H-type finned tube. The seams of the H-finned tube had an axial sweep effect at the stagnant point on the windward side and could enhance the backflow turbulence on the leeward side, which could be helpful  to alleviate ash deposition on the H-finned tube. In addition, simulations under different inlet velocities  and particle mass concentrations  were carried out. Calculation results indicated that the H-finned tube had excellent anti-deposition performance under higher inlet velocity and particle mass concentration.

    Adaptive fault line selection method based on  a multi-scale frequency signal in non-solid earthed network
    ZHANG Feng1, LIANG Jun1, GAO Hong-mei2, PAN Meng3
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(2):  118-123. 
    Abstract ( 257 )   PDF (2478KB) ( 1043 )   Save
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    The characteristic of a single-phase grounding fault were analyzed, and the optimal high-frequency signal was proposed, then a new adaptive fault line selection method based on multi-scale wavelet packet decomposition was proposed, which had excellent focusing property in time-frequency space. This method used the multi-scale wavelet packet decomposition, rather than fixed scale, which could significantly improve the robustness of the fault line algorithm. Simulation results showed that the combined criterion had higher accuracy and credibility than that of  traditional methods.

    Study of the reasons of the over-voltage of PT in the distribution network based on a time-varying vector
    DU Zheng-wang
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(2):  124-129. 
    Abstract ( 302 )   PDF (1990KB) ( 1134 )   Save
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    In distribution networks in a non-ground neutral system, the phase-mode transformation theory was used to get the 0-mode equivalent network system, and the inner reasons of the over caused potential transformer (PT) ferroresonance were studied. Then, the mathematical model of the 0-mode network was established based on the theory of time-varying vector, according to which the curve of ΔI(φL) was obtained. Through the analysis of the curve the results showed that the existence of the system steady-state resonant point was the reason that caused the occurrence of ferro-resonance. Finally, according to the size of the disturbance, the concept of speed up energy and slow energy was put forth based on the Lyapunov energy function, and the judgment system steady-state resonance standards, such as the happened-area of law was also given. Alternative transient program(ATP) simulations showed that the forward theory was efficient. The analysis of the distribution network PT accidents and subsequent inhibit burn out could provide an important theoretical basis for the research work of ferro-resonance.

    Unit commitment considering alternating current power flow constraints
    PAN Zhi-yuan1, HAN Xue-shan1*, LIU Chao-nan2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(2):  130-137. 
    Abstract ( 256 )   PDF (1230KB) ( 1554 )   Save
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    With the parallel development of  distributed generation technology and  large power grid technology, a great amount of renewable energy generation was introduced to the electrical power grid. Under this circumstance, a unit commitment model was established by considering the constraints of transmission safety using AC(alternating current) power flow.  This model also involved reactive and voltage constraints, as well as safe operation limits of generators. According to the Benders decomposition, the model was decomposed into a master problem and a sub-problem. The master problem could solve the unit commitment without AC constraints, and then the sub-problem could check the AC constraints according to the result of the master problem. Benders cuts might develop from the sub problem, and the cuts would form additional associated constraints, which could connect the master problem and the sub problem. Simulation results of modified IEEE-14 buses case proved that the proposed method could effectively solve unit commitment problems with constraints of AC power flow.

    Equivalent modeling and topological optimization for the conditioning unit of an energy harvesting converter
    HUANG Jin-xin1, ZHANG Li1, YU Chun-hui1, LI Qing-min1, CHENG Yan2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(2):  138-142. 
    Abstract ( 262 )   PDF (1718KB) ( 1110 )   Save
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    Energy scavenging technology could provide an efficient  method to solve a wireless sensor nodes’ power supply problem in a smart grid. The energy conditional unit’s performance directly affected the quality and efficiency of the energy scavenging system. The model of the typical energy conditioning unit was established, the formula of conditional circuit average power was deduced and the factors which would influence efficiency of the circuit and switch control strategy were analyzed. A new type of conditioning circuit topology design was proposed, which could improve the waveform of output voltage through inductance freewheeling. An impact factor β was defined and the feasibility of the advanced structure was certificated. The selection principle of the components parameter was proposed and the results of simulation and experiments both indicated that the improved topologies could overcome  shortcomings such as output waveform, and could improve the work efficiency of an energy scavenging system.