Perchlorate was widely used in military manufacturing, aerospace and industrial production, which had high stability, high water solubility, strong oxidizability and low volatility. With the flow of air and water migration, increasingly serious perchlorate water pollution caused widespread concern worldwide. Therefore, many countries carried out a comprehensive research and investigation on the source, water pollution status and treatment technology of perchlorate. However, China still had a few reports on perchlorate study, seriously neglecting the situation and treatment research of perchlorate pollution and lacking relevant environmental quality standards and safety concentration limits. This paper reviewed the source, hazard and water pollution status of perchlorate, analized the existing worldwide perchlorate concentration limit standards, and summarized the research progress of perchlorate treatment process in order to provide some references for further development of perchlorate study and formulation of relevant regulations in China.