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Table of Content

      
    20 December 2012
    Volume 42 Issue 6
    Articles
    A semi-supervised clustering algorithm oriented to intrusion detection
    XIA Zhan-guo, WAN Ling, CAI Shi-yu, SUN Peng-hui
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(6):  1-7. 
    Abstract ( 261 )   PDF (1267KB) ( 1421 )   Save
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    The detection rate of the traditional intrusion detection clustering algorithm is low. We combined the idea of semi-supervised learning and proposed a semi-supervised clustering algorithm oriented intrusion detection in order to improve it. Based on the part of the labeled data in the sample dataset, we generated the Seed set for initializing the cluster. The accuracy recognition of the intrusion detection data was achieved by calculating the Euclidean distance between the labeled data in the sample dataset and the average value of labeled data in each cluster and getting the initial center point. The blindness and randomness of the traditional cluster algorithm were avoided when choosing the initial center point. Furthermore, the efficiency of the detection was also improved. Experimental results showed that the proposed algorithm could utilize less label information via semi-supervised learning, and could achieve a higher efficiency than the traditional K-means method when dealing with intrusion detection dataset.
    Reduction for decision table based on relative knowledge granularity
    CHEN Yu-ming, WU Ke-shou, XIE Rong-sheng
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(6):  8-12. 
    Abstract ( 364 )   PDF (922KB) ( 1293 )   Save
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    The knowledge granularity was mainly used for attribute reduction in information systems. In order to expand the knowledge granularity to the field of decision table, the relative knowledge granularity was defined based on knowledge granularity. The equivalence between the Pawlak algebraic representation and relative granularity representation was proved for a consistent decision table. Based on the definition of relative knowledge granularity, the attribute significance was defined, and two heuristic reduction algorithms for decision table were proposed. Theoretical analysis and the actual example study showed that the reduction algorithms were efficient and feasible.
    Method for software trustworthiness evaluation based on similarity
    ZHONG Xiao-min
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(6):  13-18. 
    Abstract ( 344 )   PDF (1525KB) ( 1463 )   Save
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    In order to improve the accuracy of software trustworthiness evaluation, a creditability evaluation model based on similarity calculation between associated trusted attribute was demonstrated. The semantic similarity of corresponding qualitative trusted attribute values in the two different semantic tables were calculated by Jaccard coefficient. In the quantitative trusted attribute’s similarity, Similar threshold values were set according to the standard value on the respective time points to avoid singular values, when trusted attribute values were dynamic. Finally, the main cause of the similarity between the credible evidence model and credible expectations model and its dynamics were analyzed. The method was implemented to evaluate the software, and the results showed the effectiveness and stability of the method for the software trustworthiness evaluation.

    A spectrum-based fault localization method based on clustering algorithm
    CAI Hong, HUANG Xia
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(6):  19-24. 
    Abstract ( 391 )   PDF (927KB) ( 1505 )   Save
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    The comparison of the existing spectrum-based fault localization methods is not comprehensive due to the difference of data set, and there is no single method best for all situations so far. Therefore, the existing 28 spectrum-based fault localization methods were implemented to evaluate spectrum-based methods in same data set. A new spectrum-based fault localization method, which utilized k-means algorithm, was proposed to obtain a new suspicious ranking of statements so as to improve the effectiveness of fault localization. The effectiveness and performance of this method were confirmed by means of the designed experiment, and the statements with accepted high suspiciousness in program was captured.

    The improvement of wireless sensor networks routing algorithm based on the distance vector simulation
    SUN Xiang-hua
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(6):  25-30. 
    Abstract ( 226 )   PDF (1591KB) ( 1872 )   Save
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    For many-to-one wireless sensor network routing features and the LEACH protocol to establish the stage of information exchange characteristics, an improved routing algorithm based on the distance vector was proposed. The proposed algorithm could initialize the routing table no longer from the neighbors and did not need to build the routing path between any two points of the network. In the establishment phase of the cluster, each cluster could obtain the first cluster head information by the cluster head information broadcast, which could be used to simplify the protocol, and thereby reduce the agreement to achieve the required energy consumption in the J-sim simulation platform to achieve the above-mentioned system algorithm and its simulation study. Simulation results showed that the improved routing algorithm could significantly prolong the network life cycle, and the death of nodes was more evenly distributed. Considering the circuit loss, the CUP loss and state transitions and other aspects of energy consumption, this algorithm could also improve wireless sensor network performance, and extend the potential of the network lifecycle.

    Modeling research of free riding in P2P streaming systems
    LIU Qi, LIU Yi-xun, QIN Feng-lin
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(6):  31-36. 
    Abstract ( 330 )   PDF (1567KB) ( 1322 )   Save
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    Free riding in peer-to-peer (P2P) systems means a peer utilizing other peers’ network resources without contribution, which will cause severe degradation of the service quality in P2P streaming systems. A two-class fluid model was introduced to model and analyze the free riding problem. With this model, two scenarios including without seeders and with seeders were considered, and a quantitative analysis of the effect of free riding on the performance of P2P streaming systems particularly in the steady state was put forth. The result showed that both honest peers and free riders could achieve a much lower download time in the scenario with seeders than that without seeders, and thus it was essential to introduce the mechanisms to incentivize the seeders to stay in the system. The free riders could benefit greatly from the streaming server and the seeders, and thus it is important to introduce differentiated service for the server and seeders in P2P streaming systems.

    Matrix metric learning algorithm based on likelihood ratio test with matrix normal distribution
    QIAN Qiang, CHEN Song-can*
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(6):  37-42. 
    Abstract ( 378 )   PDF (1144KB) ( 1571 )   Save
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    Most metric learning algorithms involve tedious optimization procedure. In order to solve this problem, a metric for matrix data by using likelihood ratio test was defined based on the KISS algorithm (keep it simple and stupid). By introducing the matrix normal distribution into the likelihood ratio test, the proposed metric does not need to transform matrix pattern into vector pattern. The results showed that this algorithm could avoid the curse of dimension, could be more robust than KISS, and would not need to compute the inverse and eigen-decomposition of high dimensional matrix, which was faster than KISS. Experiments verified the advantages of the proposed algorithm.
    The enhancement algorithm of the boundary information in stereo matching
    XU Shan-shan, LIU Ying-an*, XU Sheng
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(6):  43-49. 
    Abstract ( 282 )   PDF (3028KB) ( 1101 )   Save
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    To solve the problem of fuzzy boundaries in stereo matching, boundary mismatching in textureless area and too rough cost in initial matching, a strengthen algorithm based on the boundary information was designed to improve the image of the data items. The unsuitable matched pixels were weakened by normalized matching cost, the weights were settled to strengthen the border information, and the boundary constraints were used to do the match. Experiments showed that, the new energy function could get the correct disparity in the boundary region and could eliminate the discontinuity lines in the textureless region; the optimization effect was improved with less iterations. In the textureless area the error rate could be reduced to 14%.
    Optimization and coordination of a three-echelon reverse supply chain
    LI Xiang1, WANG Hai-peng1, LI Yong-jian2*
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(6):  50-55. 
    Abstract ( 361 )   PDF (1241KB) ( 1127 )   Save
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    A three-echelon reverse supply chain consisted of a collector, a remanufacturer and a retailer was considered, in which the remanufacturer is a leader who hires the collector to acquire used products, and resells the remanufactured products through the retailer. The optimal decisions of collection and selling prices were derived for the pure decentralized system, the coalition of the remanufacturer and the retailer, the coalition of the collector and the remanufacturer, and the centralized system. The parameter sensitivity was also analyzed, and the double marginalization manifested as lower collection prices and higher selling prices, which was more prominent when the decentralization was higher. Finally, contract schemes were developed to coordinate the three-echelon reverse supply chain.

    Regional traffic congestion evaluation based on Fuzzy-PCA
    LIU Hai-qing, YANG Li-cai*, WU Lei, KONG Lu-lu
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(6):  56-62. 
    Abstract ( 343 )   PDF (1801KB) ( 1775 )   Save
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    Urban regional traffic congestion evaluation is the basis for regional traffic management and traffic guidance. To give a quantitative evaluation for the regional traffic congestion, a method based on principal component analysis and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation was proposed. Regarding average travel time as the indicators of traffic congestion, and road sections as influence factors in this method, the influence weight was established by using the method of principal component analysis, and regional traffic congestion was evaluated based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. Taking the actual traffic network structure of Jinan for an example, an experiment was given to illustrate the method by using of the traffic simulation software VISSIM and the statistical analysis software SPSS. Results showed that the method could describe urban regional traffic congestion objectively and effectively.

    3-d shape recovery from vce Image Based on Shading Information
    FU Yan-an1, LIU Hai-ying1, MENG Qing-hu1,2*
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(6):  63-68. 
    Abstract ( 442 )   PDF (1623KB) ( 1188 )   Save
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    Shape from shading (SFS) technique was used to generate 3-D structures from 2-D capsule endoscopic image. For the assumptions of the SFS technique, a preprocessing method for endoscopic image was proposed. Smooth and visually scene could be created based on the preprocessed endoscopic image, while preserving the structure of the observed objects. Experiments with real capsule endoscopic data demonstrate the 3-D shape enhanced the video and therefore leading to a more accurate diagnosis.
    A two-stage EMD algorithm based on template matching and mirror extension
    WANG Yan-chao, YANG Li-cai*, LIU Cheng-yu
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(6):  69-73. 
    Abstract ( 387 )   PDF (2128KB) ( 1361 )   Save
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    To overcome the problem of end effects in the traditional empirical mode decomposition (EMD) algorithms, a two-stage EMD, named as TM-EMD, was proposed for the analysis of pulse signal. The TM-EMD used the methods of template matching and mirror extension and suited for the analysis of physiological signals, such as pulse signal, which have the inherent periodic characteristics. Firstly, the feature information (starting point, maximum point) of pulse signal were identified by TM-EMD,and the pulse signal was separated into different single cardiac cycles. Then the pulse template was generated using the signal coherent averaging technique. The beginning and the ending of pulse signal were extended into one whole cardiac cycle based on the pulse template. Finally, the mirror extension method was used to realize the process of EMD algorithm. Simulation results proved that the TM-EMD algorithm could better describe the trend of endpoints, and so could effectively restrain the end effects of the traditional EMD.
    Balance analysis of the pavement structure based on failure approach index
    ZHU Deng-yuan1, 2, YAO Zhan-yong1*, GUAN Yan-hua1, ZHUANG Pei-zhi1
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(6):  74-79. 
    Abstract ( 444 )   PDF (1958KB) ( 1763 )   Save
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    The design method based on failure approach index was proposed to optimize the pavement structure. Three-dimensional model were built according to typical pavement structure of the grade road and loads. Based on Abaqus numerical analysis method, the distance, the stress, the strain and the plastic analysis of pavement structure layers with vehicle loads were put forth. Failure approach index was calculated for each layer of the pavement and treatment layer of the subgrade. Comparison and analysis among the failure approach index, the predicted fatigue life and the modular ratio of different layers were done. The result demonstrated that the failure approach index could represent the balance property of the pavement structure layers.
    Simplified calculation method under uniform distributed load for composite wall panels
    XU Ming-xia1,2, JIANG Xin-liang1, SUN Ming-ting3
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(6):  80-85. 
    Abstract ( 342 )   PDF (1818KB) ( 1465 )   Save
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    In order to study internal force development and force system evolution process of concretefilled glass fiber reinforced gypsum wall panels(composite board for short) under horizontal distributed load,the simplified calculation model was set up on the basis of the feature of the composite wall panels. At first the frame and plasterboard wall started to bear the force and then cracked, which would have the plastic deformation, and could reach the ultimate bearing capacity. This was actually a process that stiffness of frame and plasterboard attenuated respectively. Their distortion was unisonous. The stiffness of the frame and plasterboard in different stage was defined. The route of distortion, internal force simplified calculation method and flow chart were also given. Finally, the theoretical and experimental results were also analyzed by comparison. All the calculated results proved that the calculation method coincided well with the experimental results.
    Rock mass classification for undergound facility with emphasis on hydrogeology and its engineering application
    LIANG Jian-yi1, LI Shu-cai2, XUE Yi-guo2, WANG Zhe-chao2, ZHOU Yi2, PING Yang2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(6):  86-92. 
    Abstract ( 435 )   PDF (2342KB) ( 1074 )   Save
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    The current classification standards of rock mass, based on evaluation for the stability of surrounding rock mass, can not meet special requirements of underground projects on permeability of surrounding rock mass. Based on the analysis of the current rock mass classification standards and the particularity of underground crude oil storage caverns, the evaluation of rock permeability and the quality of rock mass were considered at the same time. The hydrological geology classification method for the service of the construction was established in order to objectively analyze the permeability of surrounding rock based on the technical means of the detailed investigation, construction survey and advanced geological prediction, of which the connecting rate of the structure, the opening degree and preferred structural plane’s attitude were introduced into the evaluation criteria. The hydrological classification direct guide grouting, and the effect of grouting was inspected by using the geological radar and packer test to ensure the stability and water seal of underground cavity.

    Shear creep empirical equations and creep parameter numerical inversion for dam zone rock mass
    CHEN Fang1, ZHANG Qiang-yong1, YANG Wen-dong1, 2, ZHANG Xu-tao1, LI Wen-gang3, WANG Jian-hong3, HE Ru-ping3
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(6):  93-99. 
    Abstract ( 359 )   PDF (2416KB) ( 1245 )   Save
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    Shear creep characteristics is one of the important factors of deformation and longterm stability of slope rock mass. By regression fitting insitu shear creep test data, a shear creep empirical equation of “hard brittle tatter” diabase dikes was obtained. Using the least square method, the fitting parameters of empirical equation was gained. A creep parameter numerical inversion method was presented, which could simulate in-situ shear creep test process and the distribution of rock stratum. Comparative analysis indicated that the fitting curve and numerical curve could both reflect the test curve well and the maximum error was only 8%. So, the shear creep empirical equations could effectively reveal the shear creep characteristics of dam zone rock mass, and the shear creep numerical model was also reasonable and reliable. The inversion analysis method could help to understand shear creep characteristics under different stress levels of diabasic dike at dam site of Dagangshan Hydropower Station. This method could also provide important technical parameters guarantee for stability analysis and design of slope in dam zone.

    Study on the treatment of diazodinitrophenol industrial wastewater
    RAO Min1, LI Yan-hong1, CHEN Wei-hua1, SONG Jian-bo2, CHEN Guang-da1, LIU Xiao-zuo1
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(6):  100-106. 
    Abstract ( 301 )   PDF (1202KB) ( 1192 )   Save
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    Based on the analyses on the source, the water quality and the present situation of the treatment of diazodinitrophenol industrial wastewater, mechanism and technological process of treating diazodinitrophenol wastewater were studied by the comprehensive electrochemical and chemical method. The removal rate of COD in wastewater was taken as the norm of the investigation, and the effects of some factors on the removal rate were thoroughly studied by the single factor experiment. The reasonable wastewater processing craft was confirmed under both the eletrolysis and oxidation conditions. The results showed that the COD removal rate of diazodinitrophenol wastewater increased up to 93.0% under the optimum conditions, which could all meet the national emission standards. The treatment cost was 20.00 RMB/m3. This method could provide references for the nitro-phenolic organic wastewater treatment.
    Perchlorate removal in water by bacteria associated with Fe0
    SHI Qiong, LIANG Shuang, WANG Shu-guang*
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(6):  107-114. 
    Abstract ( 408 )   PDF (2345KB) ( 5509 )   Save
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    According to the variation of perchlorate mass concentration as a function of time in a series of batch tests, the influence on perchlorate removal by perchlorate reducing microbes (PRMs) associated with Fe0 as electron donor was investigated, which was caused by some relative factors, such as Fe0 adding amount, bacteria concentration, perchlorate load, and initial pH. The results showed that unlike some research before, the Fe0 adding amount was not as much as better. The optimum Fe0 adding amount (mass concentration) with perchlorate mass concentration at 10000 μg/L was about 40g/L. In this case, enough electrons could be produced, while the pH increased not too fast. The perchlorate load for PRMs used in this research was about 603μg/(L?hr?gPRMs), which could take the place of pure microbes to undertake perchlorate removal in the environmental water. The optimum pH for PRMs was around 7.0. The PRMs were more sensitive to the variation of initial pH, but they could survive in a wider range of pH during the reaction. In addition, the changes of the main PRMs species were analyzed through building phylogenetic tree. Compared with the microbes after incubation, the bacteria species partly changed after the experiments. This research may provide a theoretical support for the application of perchlorate removal by PRMs associated with Fe0 to a certain degree.
    Preparation of absorbent resin based on wheat straw/modified bentonite
    WANG Rui, LI Qian*, YUE Qin-yan*, PENG Na-na, GAO Bao-yu, WANG Yan
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(6):  115-120. 
    Abstract ( 360 )   PDF (1026KB) ( 1134 )   Save
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    In order to improve the water absorption, salt resistance and gel strength after repeating absorbing of superabsorbent resin(SAR), a novel SAR was prepared by the solution polymerization of pretreatment wheat straw (WS), modified bentonite, acrylic acid (AA) and acrylamide (AM). The dosage of cross-linking agent and initator, mass ratio of monomer, neutralization degree of AA, the dosage of WS and modified bentonite were investigated, which could influence the water absorption capacity of SAR. FT-IR was conducted to characterize the structure of WS and SAR. The result was obtained as follows: the best water absorption capacity of SAR was 195.7g?g-1 in distilled water and 24.2g?g-1 in 0.9 wt % NaCl solution, respectively. Compared with the SAR without adding the modified bentonite, the SAR containing modified bentonite was much better in water absorption, repeating absorption and gel strength after repeating absorbing.

    Effects of the contact points distribution on heat transfer and resistance performances of plate heat exchangers
    ZHANG Jing-zhi, TIAN Mao-cheng*, ZHANG Guan-min, LENG Xue-li
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2012, 42(6):  121-126. 
    Abstract ( 420 )   PDF (2117KB) ( 1310 )   Save
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    In order to improve comprehensive performance of plate heat exchanger, the distribution of contact points was investigated. The correlations between the distribution and L were obtained. The L was the distance between lower crest line and symmetry axis of plate heat exchanger. Numerical simulation was conducted to investigate the influence of distribution of contact points to the performances of plate heat exchanger. Heat transfer performance and pressure drop characteristics of the chevron plate heat exchanger were got. The results showed that positions of first row contact points, pressure drop and Nu changed periodically, which could get their minimum at half of the cycle. The comprehensive factor j/f had the same cycle and the opposite trend with Nu and pressure drop, which could obtain its maximum at half of the cycle. The influence of the distribution of contact points to the performances of plate heat exchangers increased with the increasing of Re number. The comprehensive performance of plate heat exchanger could improve at half of the cycle.