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Table of Content

      
    16 April 2011
    Volume 41 Issue 2
    Articles
    Image retrieval for a design patent based on shape
    features and texture features
    CAI Nian, ZHANG Guo-hong, LOU Peng-xu, DAI Qing-yun
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  1-4. 
    Abstract ( 254 )   PDF (756KB) ( 1410 )   Save
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     An image retrieval method for a design patent was proposed by means of a multifeature fusion method. A structure and edge direction histogram described shape features of the design patent images. Texture features were obtained by Gabor wavelet and statistical characteristics of image blocks. Image retrieval for design patents was accomplished with shape features and texture features integrated with a weighted method.

    An automated method for the detection of the lumen and media-adventitia
     contours of sequential IVUS images
    QU Huai-jing1, SUN Feng-rong2, ZHANG Yun-chu1, YAO Gui-hua3, WU Yan-rong1, YANG Ming-qiang2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  5-11. 
    Abstract ( 311 )   PDF (1473KB) ( 1837 )   Save
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    Because of  shortcomings of the existing contour detection of the intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) image, an improved method used for automatically detecting  the lumen and mediaadventitia contours of  sequential IVUS images was presented. First, the speckle noise of the image was effectively removed  in the contourlet transform domain. Then, the initial lumen and mediaadventitia contours of the image were estimated according to physical properties and structural information of sequential images. Finally, using the active contour model and the grey level gradient of the denoised image, and according to the dynamic programming technique, the lumen and mediaadventitia contours of the image were automatically detected. Experimental results showed that the proposed method is algorithmically simple, statistically accurate, and has clinical value.

    A dynamic clustering algorithm based on a particle swarm
    optimization with clonal selection
    FAN Hui-lian1, LUO Yue-guo2, LI Xian-li2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  12-17. 
    Abstract ( 233 )   PDF (410KB) ( 1060 )   Save
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    In order to achieve cluster analysis with highdimensional and unknown number of clusters, a new clustering algorithm based on a particle swarm optimization algorithm(PSO) with clonal selection operator was proposed. Directed by the nature of PSO, this new algorithm could randomly search the clusters centers, and control the clone numbers and variation range by affinity. This algorithm could also avoid being trapped in local optima and could overcome being sensitive to  initialization. Experimental results on benchmark clustering problems showed that this new algorithm could adaptively determine the amount and the center’s positions of clustering. The results also showed that the average correct rate of the new algorithm was higher than the compared algorithm by  at least 7.0%.

    Morphological color image processing based on new ranking and
    soft multi-structural elements
    WANG Yu-ying1, ZHANG Xi-zhong2, YANG Sen2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  18-22. 
    Abstract ( 319 )   PDF (978KB) ( 1257 )   Save
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    A new ranking method in the HSV(hue, saturation, value) color space was proposed. The basic operators of morphology were defined based on new ranking. A new method of morphological color filtering and edge detection was given with soft multistructural elements. The experimental results demonstrate that new method has better filtering ability than the ranking of HSV and other improved methods, and  the proposed method is an adaptive method.

    Quadratic Ball curve with multiple shape parameters
    LIU Hua-yong, LI Lu, ZHANG Da-ming
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  23-28. 
    Abstract ( 381 )   PDF (1233KB) ( 988 )   Save
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    To investigate effects of  shape parameters on the cubic Ball curve shape, a polynomial basis function of 4th degree with shape control parameters λ,u was presented. It is an extension of basis function of the cubic Ball basis fanction. Based on these basis functions, the guadnic Ball curve with two parameters was defined.  The continuity condition of twopieces of curves was also discussed. This curve not only inherited the outstanding properties of the cubic Ball curve, but also was adjustable in shape and fit close to the control polygon. Its shape can be adjusted by two parameters in the same control points, which makes the curve have more powerful expression ability. Some practical examples which were adjustable in shape parameter verify the applicability in the computer aided design.

    A class of discrete orthogonal piecewise polynomials and its applications
    GUO Fen-hong1,2, XIONG Gang-qiang1,3
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  29-35. 
    Abstract ( 396 )   PDF (2730KB) ( 1689 )   Save
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    For computer geometric figures representation, there is Gibbs phenomenon if continuous basis functions are used to approximate the discontinuous signals with breakpoints. The rate of convergence is very slow if Walsh basis functions are used to represent the discontinuous signals. Thus a class of discrete piecewise orthogonal polynomials basis (DPTB) was constructed from discrete orthogonal Tchebichef polynomials, whose breakpoints appear at  (N-1)/2p. Since this class of basis consists of smooth and  piecewise polynomials parts, finite discrete geometric figures with breakpoints at(N-1)/2p can be precisely expressed  by using the constructed orthogonal basis. Then its properties and a set of explicit basis expressions with degree k(k=1,2,3) are given. Finally, the new discrete orthogonal base is used to decompose and reconstruct the signal with breakpoints. The experimental results show that this  method outperforms the algorithm based on cosine orthogonal basis for expressing the signals with breakpoint.

    Multi-pose face detection based on color model and face feature
    SUN Yaxin, ZHAN Yinwei*
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  36-39. 
    Abstract ( 281 )   PDF (1229KB) ( 1251 )   Save
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    Traditionally, AdaBoost based face detection algorithms use frontal faces to train classifiers, which cannot detect multipose faces with arbitrary rotations. Noticing that the eye structures vary less than face structures in multipose faces, eyes were used to train the classifier in AdaBoost algorithm, and present a fast algorithm to detect multipose faces in complex scenes. An image is first mapped to a YCrCb color space and the skin region is detected with the skin color distribution. The eye region is then detected from the skin region via the AdaBoost algorithm. The face is located according to the eye positions relative to faces. Experimental results show that this algorithm performs well for the detection of multipose faces.

    Alternating convex relaxation minimization of the multiphase image
    segmentation model and its Split Bregman algorithm
    WANG Liya, PAN Zhenkuan, WEI Weibo*, LIU Cunliang, ZHANG Zhimei, WANG Yu
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  40-45. 
    Abstract ( 328 )   PDF (1304KB) ( 1647 )   Save
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    The variational level set model has been a fundamental framework of multiphase segmentation of images, which is usually solved by computing steady solutions of evolution equations of level set functions. The computing efficiency is low. For the model of piecewise constant image segmentation using n level set functions for n regions, the optimization problem was transformed to discrete binary value level set functions. Then they were transformed to a convex optimization problem. The solutions of the original problems were obtained from threshold solutions of the convex optimization problem. The Split Bregman algorithm was designed for the proposed problem. Some image segmentation examples were presented to prove that the method proposed in this paper improved computing efficiency compared to the traditional method, and one 3D image segmentation example was presented to prove the effectiveness of this method.

    A novel SIFT descriptor based on a color quantization matrix
    TANG Bochao, CAI Nian*, CHENG Yu
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  46-50. 
    Abstract ( 296 )   PDF (658KB) ( 2142 )   Save
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    In order to avoid the disadvantages of huge computational complexity and poor matching performance in existing  scale invariant feature transform(SIFT) descriptors for color images,  a novel SIFT descriptor for color images based on color quantization matrix was given. The quantization matrix was obtained by triplecolor components. And it was applied to generate a 128dimensional SIFT descriptor to match color objects. The experimental results showed that, compared with existing SIFT descriptors for color images, this proposed method has the advantages of higher correct matching rate, less matching time and more accurate matching points. This method can effectively match the color objects.

    Research on features of insect images
    WANG Jiangning, JI Liqiang
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  51-57. 
    Abstract ( 340 )   PDF (469KB) ( 1671 )   Save
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    Feature extraction is one of the important contents in insect image research. Feature extraction of insect image includes two aspects: feature extraction and feature selection. The majority of recent Chinese references on feature extraction of insect images were listed here after the summary of image feature extraction. According to these references it was concluded that  research is being done   than previously  and various methods were tested in this research. Furthermore, some of the problems of  this research   were discussed here and three suggestions for further research and applications in this field were proposed.

    An iterative decoding based scalable distributed video coding
    QING Linbo, L Rui, OU Xianfeng, ZHENG Min, HE Xiaohai
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  58-61. 
    Abstract ( 268 )   PDF (1253KB) ( 1149 )   Save
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    As a new video coding paradigm, distributed video coding (DVC) has lower encoding complexity and higher robustness to transmission error than conventional video coding. However, its compression ratio was comparatively low and highly dependent on groupofpictures (GOP) size. A combined video coding scheme was proposed by introducing H.264 coding into typical pixel domain WynerZiv (PDWZ) coding. The coder has a parallel encoding and iterative decoding structure, in which a predictive coding scheme and a novel sideinformation (SI) generation algorithm are also adopted. Simulation showed that the proposed architecture has higher compression ratio than an optimized PDWZ coder. Moreover, it enables a video to be processed in sequential order and provides multilayer in scalability.

    Design of a robust source scanner identification algorithm
    ZHOU Changhui1, HU Yongjian2, YU Shaopeng1
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  62-65. 
    Abstract ( 206 )   PDF (675KB) ( 978 )   Save
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    When testing images were  subjected to minor image processing  the change of detection rates was rarely discussed in the current image origin identification problem. A robust source scanner identification method was proposed, in this paper, by using acquired  digital images of flatbed desktop scanners. First, the feature of color, image quality and neighborhood were proposed based on the difference of imaging colorpurity and fabrication process of different scanner brands/models. Then, Support Vector Machine classifier was used to verifying the performance and robustness of our source scanner identification algorithm. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively identify scanner brands/models and has better robustness than the previously.

    Acquisition of image data for a flat screen based true 3D volumetric display
    DUAN Xianyin, HE Hanwu, CHEN Heen, HE Zhiyuan
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  66-69. 
    Abstract ( 289 )   PDF (1081KB) ( 1550 )   Save
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    True 3D volumetric display is the latest volume data display whose image floats in real 3D space and can offer people both physiological and psychological depth cues. Hardware structure and display principals of true 3D volumetric display based on multiprojector and rotating flat screen were analyzed to acquire true 3D volumetric display data. An approach to acquire true 3D volumetric display data by obtaining slice images of a model using OpenGL was proposed. Positions of two clip planes were first calculated, and then view volume was restrained by enabling two clip planes to cut a model and obtain its image slices. Finally, image slices from different perspective were obtained by controlling positions of a model according to the preset rotating angle. Then, software using the above method was developed to acquire true 3D volumetric display data. The application example of cutting an animal model indicates the method was effective.

    Radar target 3D image reconstruction based on
    ramp response technique
    WEN Yanhua, JIANG Yongping, XU Du, LU Chuanze
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  70-74. 
    Abstract ( 294 )   PDF (1055KB) ( 1212 )   Save
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     Among the radar target identification field, 3D images of the target’s shape can give the most direct and useful information for identifying the target. A low frequency method, named as the Ramp response technique, is widely used for radar target imaging. Quality of the reconstructed image is mainly related to the performance of the image reconstruction algorithm. Therefore, two classical reconstruction algorithms, which are based on Ramp response technique,  were  introduced. Simulation and comparison between the two algorithms were made under different conditions. A new algorithm for calculating profile functions from a reconstructed image was proposed and performance evolution based on the errors of profile function was presented and considerable conclusions were drawn.

    A contourlet transform-based steganalysis algorithm
    SHI Xiayang, WANG Yufei, HU Yongjian
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  75-79. 
    Abstract ( 293 )   PDF (642KB) ( 1318 )   Save
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     A universal steganalysis method was proposed by using the superior property of the contourlet transform with representation of an image. It merged the highorder statistics model of coefficient moments statistics, noise residual moments statistics, and characteristic function moments in the high frequency subband of the contourlet domain. At the same time, a nonlinear support vector machine(SVM) classifier was used to classify JSteg, Jphide, F5 and Outguess with different embedding rates. Experimental results showed that the proposed method has the superion discriminative performance  for  most of steganography methods. Compared with the classical wavelet, the contourlet transform has better detection effect to capture  slight differences during embedding messages.
     

    K nearest neighbors detecting algorithm based on a RSOM tree
    ZHENG Junjun1, XIA Shengping1, LI Xinguang1, ZHU Yiwei1, LIU Jianjun1, TAN Liqiu1,2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  80-84. 
    Abstract ( 297 )   PDF (964KB) ( 1186 )   Save
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    A K nearest neighbors detecting algorithm based on a RSOM(recursive selforganizing mapping) clustering tree was proposed by using the scale invariant feature transform(SIFT)  feature as the indices. Images were labeled and SIFT features were extracted and the number of the images were stored in the leaf node of the RSOM clustering tree. Using matched feature number as the criterion of the candidate set of K nearestneighbors set, the iterative Procrustes method was employed to obtain  more precise results. More than 50 000 images were tested and the experimental results showed the high efficiency of the proposal method.

    Dynamic channel allocation modeling and algorithm in cellular networks
    based on a genetic algorithm
    YANG Qinmin, LIU Hailin*
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  85-90. 
    Abstract ( 274 )   PDF (603KB) ( 1100 )   Save
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    Aimed at overcoming the shortages of the current dynamic channel allocation model in cellular networks, a dynamic channel allocation model based on minimizing the number of cells and channel among cells that violated  the electromagnetic compatibility constraints was proposed. Aimed at the mathematical model, a dynamic channel allocation algorithm in cellular networks based on a genetic algorithm was proposed, which could obtain  a set of channel assignments  with minimum interference and avoid the interference among mobile users.Simulations on several wellknown twentyone cell Philadelphia benchmark problems showed that this algorithm could obtain an efficient channel assignment and improved spectrum utilization and system capacity.

    An algorithm for detecting conditional outlier
    polygons based on  inclusion relations
    GU Shan1, JI Genlin1, 2*
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  91-95. 
    Abstract ( 259 )   PDF (628KB) ( 866 )   Save
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    A new algorithm DCOP- IR was proposed for detecting conditional outlier polygons based on inclusion relations. In this algorithm, inclusion relations and nonspatial attributes were  used as similarity measurement criteria, and a densitybased outlier detecting algorithm was first used for detecting spatial outliers for all database, then it was  used for detecting spatial outliers which satisfy some certain conditions. The experimental results showed  that DCOP-IR was effective and efficient.

    A classification method for class-imbalanced data
    CHEN Jintan1, 2, KANG Hengzheng3*, YANG Yan3, ZHOU Weixiong 4
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  96-101. 
    Abstract ( 245 )   PDF (374KB) ( 1816 )   Save
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    To improve the classification performance for minority class in an unbalanced dataset,  an improved AdaBoost algorithm (UnAdaBoost algorithm) for an unbalanced dataset was proposed. This algorithm could make the base classification better in order to raise the classification efficienly for the minority class, while to a certain extent losing the accuracy for the majority class. This algorithm could also ensemble the base classifications to make up loss of accuracy in majority class. The performance for  the minority class could be improved and the accuracy for majority class would not be lost. In this study, the improved NaiveBayes algorithm was the base classification, and the base classifiers were fused by the AdaBoost algorithm with improved weight for voting. Experimental results showed that the UnAdaBoost algorithm was effective for an unbalanced dataset compared with the AdaBoost algorithm.
     imbalanced class; AdaBoost algorithm; accuracy

    The effect of re-sampling on spectral analysis of pulse interval series
    LI Liping1, YANG Jing2, LIU Changchun1, LIU Chengyu1, ZHANG Qingguang1, LI Ke1
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  102-106. 
    Abstract ( 270 )   PDF (1009KB) ( 1729 )   Save
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    The effect of resampling on spectral analysis of pulse interval series was systematically analyzed. The method of the mean pulse rate as the resampling rate was proposed, which could provide theoretical support for  pulse rate variability. Four methods, the nearest neighbor interpolation, piecewise linear interpolation, piecewise cubic Hermite interpolation and cubic spline interpolation, were applied to resample the simulated pulse interval series. The Welch periodogram and the Autoregressive model were used for spectral analysis with several resampling rates compared. Results showed that the combination of cubic spline interpolation and the Welch periodogram to be an optimal choice for least errors and spectral analysis of pulse interval series. And the mean pulse rate was the optimal resampling rate. Thirty healthy subjects and thirty subjects with coronary heart disease (CHD) were tested to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods. Results showed that spectral analysis of the subjects with CHD was significantly lower than that of the healthy subjects.

    Design, recognition, localization and application of a new artificial landmark
    JIANG Haitao, TIAN Guohui*, XUE Yinghua, LI Rongkuan
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  107-113. 
    Abstract ( 343 )   PDF (1218KB) ( 1417 )   Save
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    The artificial  landmark is an important auxiliary method for robot localization and navigation. A kind of new artificial landmark based on QR Code(quick response code) technology was proposed. This new landmark not only stores rich environment information, but also provides effective pose information to the robot. An algorithm based on shape and color of the landmark was presented in order that the landmark could be recognized by the robot in the far distance. The localization algorithm using the vanishing line principle was designed to locate the artificial landmark quickly and accurately in the camera coordinates of the robot. A control scheme including searching in the far distance, recognition, localization and reading landmarks was proposed, which laid a solid foundation for robot autonomous localization and navigation. Experiments demonstrated that the new landmark had far recognition distance, high recognition speed, high positioning precision,high decoding efficiency and stability even in a complex indoor environment.

    Public buildings baseline load forecasting based on demand
    response in electric power
    MA Qing, LI Qiqiang*
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  114-118. 
    Abstract ( 309 )   PDF (372KB) ( 1520 )   Save
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    According to the problem that public buildings baseline load was hard to forecast effectively, a kind of artificial neutral network forecasting method based on Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) optimization preprocesses was proposed. The complicated historical data were   divided into a mixture of multiple populations, and each population was represented by a single forecasting model. This method could reduce ANN training data and overcame the disadvantage of very large data and slow processing speed. The forecasting result can have greater forecasting accuracy and effectively forecast  the public buildings baseline load compared with the standard BP neutral network.

    Finite-time stability of a class of generalized Hamiltonian systems with
    application to control design of nonlinear affine systems
    MA Shi-min, WANG Yu-zhen
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  119-125. 
    Abstract ( 262 )   PDF (621KB) ( 1059 )   Save
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    Finite-time stability was investigated for a class of generalized Hamiltonian systems with application to control design of nonlinear affine systems, and a number of new results were presented. Based on the structural properties of Hamiltonian systems and the existing results of local finitetime stability, several criteria were obtained for the finitetime stability of the class of generalized Hamiltonian systems. The obtained results were used to study the finitetime control design for a class of nonlinear affine systems. Via choosing a suitable Hamiltonian function, and utilizing the orthogonal decomposition Hamiltonian realization and the damping injection technique, a new control design procedure was established. Two illustrative examples were given to support the new results obtained in this paper.

    Analysis of transmission spectra of 6H—SiC crystal in the visible
    and near infrared range
    YU Yuanxun1, LIAN Jie2*, GUAN Wenli1, WANG Gongtang3, LI Juan4, XU Xiangang4
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  126-129. 
    Abstract ( 531 )   PDF (819KB) ( 3408 )   Save
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    Transmission spectra of instinct and N doped 6H—SiC crystals in the visible and near infrared range were measured by using the UVVis spectrophotometer and infrared spectrum measurement system. Optical transmission spectra demonstrated that the 6H—SiC single crystal was transparent for visible and near infrared radiation. Compared with the 6H—SiC single crystal, it was also observed that  nitrogen doping could make the bandgap narrower, and the optical absorption of N doped SiC appeared in the visible and near infrared range. Also,  dispersion curves were obtained by the transmission spectra, and the refractive indices were analyzed using the dispersion equation in the transparent region. In addition,  spectra analysis showed that the absorption at 625nm corresponded to the free electron transition from the low energy level of band tailing induced by N doping to the high energy level in the conduction band, and the absorption of free carrier resulted in low transmission around 2500nm for nitrogen doped crystal.

    Collaborative effect of CF/EG on properties of silicone rubber
    MU Qiuhong 1, FENG Shengyu 2
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  130-134. 
    Abstract ( 300 )   PDF (1031KB) ( 1279 )   Save
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    The solution intercalation method was used to prepare the expanded graphite/VMQ thermally conductive composites. Carbon fiber was added to improve the mechanical properties and the effects of EG, CF and titanate coupling agents on thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of silicone rubber were studied. It was found that there was better collaborative effect between CF and EG, and the polymerfiller interactions could be improved by adding certain content titanate coupling agents. Compared with EG/VMQ composites, CF/EG/VMQ composites showed higher thermal conductivity and mechanical properties.

    High efficient anti-reflection of ultra-black carbon materials
    tailoring the nano structure of butterfly compound eyes
    DING Yue-lei, LIU Hui-hui, FAN Tong-xiang*
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  135-139. 
    Abstract ( 299 )   PDF (1738KB) ( 1581 )   Save
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    The biological members using nanometer-scale architectures proved to be an ideal ultra-black structure. In order to improve the performance of light harvesting for carbon materials, a vacuum sintering process was used  to fabricate the antireflection nano structures from certain butterfly compound eyes on technologically important carbon materials. By this effective bioinspired templating technique, a new nano lattice structure ultra-black material was obtained with  better antireflection properties than  ordinary ones. The replicas well retained the original microstructure and geometric features, which significantly improved the ultra-black level in the near ultraviolet and visible light range, due to the enhancement  of photon collection efficiency. The ultra-black properties of the nano structure carbon materials were tested, which showed an obviously enhanced light harvesting capability.

    Stabilized pressure technology of mixed gas based on a control valve
    JI He-xi, WANG Yong*, XIE Yu-dong
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  140-143. 
    Abstract ( 276 )   PDF (1547KB) ( 1200 )   Save
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    A mixed-gas stabilized-pressure system based on a control valve was designed. The model of the mixedgas stabilizedpressure system was built  and the fuzzy PID controller for the stabilizedpressure system was designed. Based on the model, the control performance simulation analyses of the stabilizedpressure system with the traditional PID controller and the fuzzy PID controller were carried out. Simulation results showed that the fuzzy PID controller can provide  better performance than the traditional PID controller.

    React IRTM study of the synthesis of octadecyl methacrylate-based
     oil soluble polymer
    HAN Tao1, WANG Xiaoyun2, YU Ping1*, DAI Xiaodong2, L Xiaobo1, LI Bing1
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  144-148. 
    Abstract ( 263 )   PDF (1578KB) ( 1144 )   Save
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    The kinetics of the copolymerizing process of octadecyl methacrylate, styrene and maleic anhydride were  performed by using the react IR analytical system (React IRTM4000), and the heat flow derived from exothermic copolymerization was measured by an Auto-RC reaction calorimeter. The results showed that the absorbance of functional groups, i.e. ester, anhydride, and phenyl remained stable. The change of the absorbance with time corresponded to the ternary addition copolymerization control region when the CC bond was broken.  The initiator required a certain inductiona period. There was an apparent exothermic reaction zone in the additional  polymerization, while  reaction was relatively stable and moderate. Therefore, this study could provide the reference for the determination and optimization of  key control parameters of the synthesis process.
     

    Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of R404A/CO2
    cascade refrigeration system
    LAI Yanhua1, DONG Zhen1, SHAO Changbo2, L Mingxin1, WANG Qingwei1, KONG Demin1
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  149-153. 
    Abstract ( 281 )   PDF (1520KB) ( 1327 )   Save
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    In order to improve the performance of R404A/CO2 cascade refrigeration system, a theoretical study was carried out. According to the thermal physical properties of R404A/CO2 and the efficiencies of compressors, thermodynamic analysis and mathematical simulation were adopted to get the influence of the important factors such as the evaporating temperature Te, the condensing temperature Tk and the temperature difference ΔT in the cascadecondenser. The optimum condensing temperature in the CO2 lowtemperature cycle, the optimum mass flow ratio of the high/low temperature cycle and the optimum coefficient of performance under different conditions were  obtained by simulation. There exists an optimum coefficient of performance when Te, Tk and  ΔT are definite in this cascade refrigeration system. The coefficient of performance can be improved by increasing Te, decreasing  ΔT in the cascadecondenser and Tk. Under the same conditions, the optimum coefficient of performance of the R404A/CO2 cascade refrigeration system is slightly higher than that of NH3/CO2 refrigeration system.

    Analysis of  flat crankshaft engines vibration sources and design of the balance system
    LV Yidan1, LIU Yungang2, ZHANG Zhensheng3
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  154-157. 
    Abstract ( 287 )   PDF (531KB) ( 1562 )   Save
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    The most critical problem for an 8 cylinder Vtype engine is the unbalanced second order reciprocating inertia force. Engines seriously  vibrate then even a doubleshaft balance system is adopted. The features and the values of the overturning moment of 8 cylinder Vtype engine were studied, the balance method as well as the balance condition was discussed and a new balance system was designed. The experimental results conducted on an 8V190 diesel engine indicated that the new balance system can effectively  reduce engine vibration and make the 8 cylinder Vtype engine operate stably.

    Field synergy analyses on inner flow and heat transfer
    characteristics of spirally corrugated tubes
    TANG Yu-feng, TIAN Mao-cheng, LENG Xue-li
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  158-162. 
    Abstract ( 228 )   PDF (1573KB) ( 1387 )   Save
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    A numerical study combined with the field synergy principle was performed to investigate the flow and heat transfer of fully developed turbulent flow in a spirally corrugated tube. Air was selected as the working fluid and constant temperature was applied to the tube wall. Sixteen different structural parameters consisting  of four different corrugation pitches and depths were considered. The effects of helical corrugation and changes of corrugation pitch and depth on field synergy performance and heat transfer enhancement of the enhanced tube were discussed. It indicates that the field synergy principle is efficient in explaining the effect of structural parameter changes on the heat transfer performance of spirally corrugated tubes and also is a guide to structural optimization of enhanced heat transfer elements. By contrast, the Nusselt number acquired from the numerical calculation is in relatively good agreement with the results of experimental correlation.

    Study on the reliability of heating regulation based on prediction using
    the  BP neural network and regression
    LIU Qingtang1, GUO Jingqiang2, SHAN Baoyan3, LI Ming1, PAN Jihong4
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  163-166. 
    Abstract ( 246 )   PDF (1295KB) ( 1194 )   Save
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    To meet the operational regulation demand of heating system, a study was conducted on the prediction of supply water temperature and water flux in a heating system. 200 groups of operating parameters were selected as samples from a certain period of a practical heating system, processed with matlab7.0, and predicted and analyzed with the back propagation neural network and regression. The former determined a reasonable back propagation network structure,and was  processed and trained with traingdm function. The latter fit a regression equation with high confidence level. Finally,  predicted values of supply temperature and water flux were  compared with the actual values while their errors were analyzed. The result showed that the two forecast values were reliable, but the back propagation neural network had a better result and smaller error.

    Study of urban early-warning decision-making support system of
    flood control and its application
    XU Bangshu, JIA Chao, WANG Yukui, ZHANG Jincun
    JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (ENGINEERING SCIENCE). 2011, 41(2):  167-172. 
    Abstract ( 231 )   PDF (971KB) ( 1682 )   Save
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    In recent years, city flood control is too increasingly outstanding with urban economics and scope increasing rapidly in Jinan. The government not only puts emphasis on the  engineering measure, but also non-engineering measure development. All kinds of data were gathered including geography data, water facilities, historical rainfall and water data and flood disaster data. Rainfall and water auto-collection  systems were  built. Predicting the evolving course of river flood  and the wateraccumulating depth of the low-lying region were based on the urban flood simulation model. Flood control preplan database was developed for providing consultation  for future analogous flood disasters. Flood briefing and flood issuing mode were studied. GIS flat was developed based on the above-mentioned works for providing decision-making foundations.