Journal of Shandong University(Engineering Science) ›› 2020, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (4): 114-118.doi: 10.6040/j.issn.1672-3961.0.2019.670

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Water footprint of lead-acid battery throughout the whole life cycle

ZHANG Ruirui, MA Xiaotian, HONG Jinglan, CHANG Jingcai*   

  1. School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Qingdao 266237, Shandong, China
  • Published:2020-08-13

Abstract: To quantify the water footprint impacts throughout the whole life cycle of lead-acid batteries from raw materials extraction to comprehensive recycling and reuse, a water footprint analysis based on life cycle assessment method was used to comprehensively analyze the water footprint generated by life cycle. SimaPro 8.4 software was used to analyze the water footprint impacts on lead-acid battery preparation, transportation, use, production of consumed electricity, and waste battery recycling processes. Results showed that lead-acid battery production and generation of consumed electricity were the two most important processes in water footprint analysis, among which the former had significant impact on aquatic eutrophication, carcinogens, freshwater ecotoxicity and water scarcity categories, while the latter had considerable contributions to acidification and non-carcinogens. In addition, key substances such as copper, chromium, phosphates discharged into water and sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere were mainly derived from these two processes. Optimizing these two main processes would help to reduce the water footprint of the lead-acid battery production chain effectively.

Key words: lead-acid battery, life cycle assessment, water footprint, key processes, environmental impact

CLC Number: 

  • X323
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